Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome

Liza J. Shapiro, Whitney G. Cole, Jesse W. Young, David A Raichlen, Scott R. Robinson, Karen E. Adolph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since 2005, an extensive literature documents individuals from several families afflicted with "Uner Tan Syndrome (UTS)," a condition that in its most extreme form is characterized by cerebellar hypoplasia, loss of balance and coordination, impaired cognitive abilities, and habitual quadrupedal gait on hands and feet. Some researchers have interpreted habitual use of quadrupedalism by these individuals from an evolutionary perspective, suggesting that it represents an atavistic expression of our quadrupedal primate ancestry or "devolution." In support of this idea, individuals with "UTS" are said to use diagonal sequence quadrupedalism, a type of quadrupedal gait that distinguishes primates from most other mammals. Although the use of primate-like quadrupedal gait in humans would not be sufficient to support the conclusion of evolutionary "reversal," no quantitative gait analyses were presented to support this claim. Using standard gait analysis of 518 quadrupedal strides from video sequences of individuals with "UTS", we found that these humans almost exclusively used lateral sequence-not diagonal sequence-quadrupedal gaits. The quadrupedal gait of these individuals has therefore been erroneously described as primate-like, further weakening the "devolution" hypothesis. In fact, the quadrupedalism exhibited by individuals with UTS resembles that of healthy adult humans asked to walk quadrupedally in an experimental setting. We conclude that quadrupedalism in healthy adults or those with a physical disability can be explained using biomechanical principles rather than evolutionary assumptions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere101758
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 16 2014

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gait
Gait
Primates
Gait analysis
Mammals
Aptitude
Foot
ancestry
hands
Hand
researchers
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mammals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Shapiro, L. J., Cole, W. G., Young, J. W., Raichlen, D. A., Robinson, S. R., & Adolph, K. E. (2014). Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome. PLoS One, 9(7), [e101758]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101758

Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome. / Shapiro, Liza J.; Cole, Whitney G.; Young, Jesse W.; Raichlen, David A; Robinson, Scott R.; Adolph, Karen E.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 7, e101758, 16.07.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shapiro, LJ, Cole, WG, Young, JW, Raichlen, DA, Robinson, SR & Adolph, KE 2014, 'Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome', PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 7, e101758. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101758
Shapiro LJ, Cole WG, Young JW, Raichlen DA, Robinson SR, Adolph KE. Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 16;9(7). e101758. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101758
Shapiro, Liza J. ; Cole, Whitney G. ; Young, Jesse W. ; Raichlen, David A ; Robinson, Scott R. ; Adolph, Karen E. / Human quadrupeds, primate quadrupedalism, and Uner Tan Syndrome. In: PLoS One. 2014 ; Vol. 9, No. 7.
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