Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 v half wave voltage at 1550 nm

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. Derose, Robert A Norwood, J. Luo, A. K Y Jen, Nasser N Peyghambarian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

152 Scopus citations


The authors report on a hybrid cross-linked electro-optic (EO) polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage (Vπ) of 0.65 V at 1550 nm. The low Vπ was achieved by a design that (1) combines both physical vertical tapers in the sol-gel core and photobleached index tapers in the EO polymer and (2) reduces the thickness of the device to 8 μm. These combined physical and index tapers result in improved optical mode confinement in the EO polymer with low adiabatic optical transition loss. The reduced thickness results in a larger field across the EO polymer for the same voltage, enabling a lower Vπ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number093505
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2007


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this