The authors report on a hybrid cross-linked electro-optic (EO) polymer/sol-gel Mach-Zehnder waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage (Vπ) of 0.65 V at 1550 nm. The low Vπ was achieved by a design that (1) combines both physical vertical tapers in the sol-gel core and photobleached index tapers in the EO polymer and (2) reduces the thickness of the device to 8 μm. These combined physical and index tapers result in improved optical mode confinement in the EO polymer with low adiabatic optical transition loss. The reduced thickness results in a larger field across the EO polymer for the same voltage, enabling a lower Vπ.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)