Hybrid polymersol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, Robert A Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K Y Jen, Nasser N Peyghambarian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

315 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electro-optic (EO) modulators are typically made from inorganic materials such as LiNbO3, but replacing them with organic EO materials, that is, ones with optical properties that change in response to an electric field, could be a promising alternative because they offer large bandwidth, ease of processing and relatively low cost. Here we incorporate a doped, crosslinked organic EO polymer into hybrid polymersol-gel waveguide modulator devices with exceptional performance. The half-wave voltages of the resulting Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and phase modulators at 1550nm are 1V and 2.5V, respectively. The unique properties of the sol-gel cladding materials used in the hybrid structure result in a 100 device poling efficiency, leading to respective in-device EO coefficients of 138pmV-1 and 170pmV-1 in the MZ and phase modulators. These results are the first to show in-device EO coefficients that are five to six times larger than those of the benchmark inorganic material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-185
Number of pages6
JournalNature Photonics
Volume1
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2007

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Electrooptical effects
Modulators
electro-optics
modulators
Waveguides
Gels
gels
waveguides
coefficients
inorganic materials
Mach number
hybrid structures
Sol-gels
Polymers
Optical properties
Electric fields
bandwidth
Bandwidth
optical properties
electric fields

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Hybrid polymersol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients. / Enami, Y.; Derose, C. T.; Mathine, D.; Loychik, C.; Greenlee, C.; Norwood, Robert A; Kim, T. D.; Luo, J.; Tian, Y.; Jen, A. K Y; Peyghambarian, Nasser N.

In: Nature Photonics, Vol. 1, No. 3, 03.2007, p. 180-185.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Enami, Y, Derose, CT, Mathine, D, Loychik, C, Greenlee, C, Norwood, RA, Kim, TD, Luo, J, Tian, Y, Jen, AKY & Peyghambarian, NN 2007, 'Hybrid polymersol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients', Nature Photonics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 180-185. https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.25
Enami, Y. ; Derose, C. T. ; Mathine, D. ; Loychik, C. ; Greenlee, C. ; Norwood, Robert A ; Kim, T. D. ; Luo, J. ; Tian, Y. ; Jen, A. K Y ; Peyghambarian, Nasser N. / Hybrid polymersol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients. In: Nature Photonics. 2007 ; Vol. 1, No. 3. pp. 180-185.
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AU - Norwood, Robert A

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