Impact of Canadian federal methamphetamine precursor and essential chemical regulations on methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions

Russell C. Callaghan, James K Cunningham, J. Charles Victor, Lon Mu Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In response to its domestic methamphetamine problems and an emerging international consensus that methamphetamine precursor and essential chemicals should be controlled, Canada regulated its import/export of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (precursor chemicals) in January 2003, its domestic distribution of those chemicals in July 2003, and its import/export and manufacturing of essential chemicals (e.g., toluene) in January 2004. This study examines the regulations' impact on the problem of methamphetamine-related hospital admissions in Canada. Methods: ARIMA-based intervention time-series analysis was used to assess impacts on monthly counts of Canada's methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions (04/1996 to 03/2005). Cocaine-, heroin/opioid-, and alcohol-related hospital admissions were examined as quasi-control time-series. Results: No impact was found for the January 2003 regulation. The July 2003 and January 2004 regulations were associated with 20% and 21% increases, respectively, in methamphetamine-related admissions. No impacts on the quasi-control time-series were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that Canada's regulations were not associated with reductions in methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. The January 2003 regulation's focus on imports/exports rather than domestic distribution may help explain its lack of impact. In contrast, the two other regulations had salient domestic foci - domestic precursor sales (July 2003) and domestic essential chemical manufacturing (January 2004). Both regulations, however, were associated with increases in admissions, rather than declines. Government reports indicate that a shift in methamphetamine production, from smaller-scale operators to more sophisticated crime organizations (groups better able to circumvent the regulations), occurred around the times of the regulations. Such a shift could increase supply and possibly admissions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)185-193
Number of pages9
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume105
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009

Fingerprint

Methamphetamine
Canada
Time series
Pseudoephedrine
Ephedrine
Time series analysis
Crime
Heroin
Toluene
Cocaine
Opioid Analgesics
Sales
Alcohols
Organizations

Keywords

  • ARIMA
  • Canada
  • Ephedrine
  • Hospitalization
  • Methamphetamine
  • Precursor chemical legislation
  • Pseudoephedrine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

Cite this

Impact of Canadian federal methamphetamine precursor and essential chemical regulations on methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions. / Callaghan, Russell C.; Cunningham, James K; Victor, J. Charles; Liu, Lon Mu.

In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol. 105, No. 3, 01.12.2009, p. 185-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{3cc2ec471c5b4806b885adfd6c0d8862,
title = "Impact of Canadian federal methamphetamine precursor and essential chemical regulations on methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions",
abstract = "Background: In response to its domestic methamphetamine problems and an emerging international consensus that methamphetamine precursor and essential chemicals should be controlled, Canada regulated its import/export of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (precursor chemicals) in January 2003, its domestic distribution of those chemicals in July 2003, and its import/export and manufacturing of essential chemicals (e.g., toluene) in January 2004. This study examines the regulations' impact on the problem of methamphetamine-related hospital admissions in Canada. Methods: ARIMA-based intervention time-series analysis was used to assess impacts on monthly counts of Canada's methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions (04/1996 to 03/2005). Cocaine-, heroin/opioid-, and alcohol-related hospital admissions were examined as quasi-control time-series. Results: No impact was found for the January 2003 regulation. The July 2003 and January 2004 regulations were associated with 20{\%} and 21{\%} increases, respectively, in methamphetamine-related admissions. No impacts on the quasi-control time-series were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that Canada's regulations were not associated with reductions in methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. The January 2003 regulation's focus on imports/exports rather than domestic distribution may help explain its lack of impact. In contrast, the two other regulations had salient domestic foci - domestic precursor sales (July 2003) and domestic essential chemical manufacturing (January 2004). Both regulations, however, were associated with increases in admissions, rather than declines. Government reports indicate that a shift in methamphetamine production, from smaller-scale operators to more sophisticated crime organizations (groups better able to circumvent the regulations), occurred around the times of the regulations. Such a shift could increase supply and possibly admissions.",
keywords = "ARIMA, Canada, Ephedrine, Hospitalization, Methamphetamine, Precursor chemical legislation, Pseudoephedrine",
author = "Callaghan, {Russell C.} and Cunningham, {James K} and Victor, {J. Charles} and Liu, {Lon Mu}",
year = "2009",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.024",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "105",
pages = "185--193",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Dependence",
issn = "0376-8716",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact of Canadian federal methamphetamine precursor and essential chemical regulations on methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions

AU - Callaghan, Russell C.

AU - Cunningham, James K

AU - Victor, J. Charles

AU - Liu, Lon Mu

PY - 2009/12/1

Y1 - 2009/12/1

N2 - Background: In response to its domestic methamphetamine problems and an emerging international consensus that methamphetamine precursor and essential chemicals should be controlled, Canada regulated its import/export of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (precursor chemicals) in January 2003, its domestic distribution of those chemicals in July 2003, and its import/export and manufacturing of essential chemicals (e.g., toluene) in January 2004. This study examines the regulations' impact on the problem of methamphetamine-related hospital admissions in Canada. Methods: ARIMA-based intervention time-series analysis was used to assess impacts on monthly counts of Canada's methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions (04/1996 to 03/2005). Cocaine-, heroin/opioid-, and alcohol-related hospital admissions were examined as quasi-control time-series. Results: No impact was found for the January 2003 regulation. The July 2003 and January 2004 regulations were associated with 20% and 21% increases, respectively, in methamphetamine-related admissions. No impacts on the quasi-control time-series were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that Canada's regulations were not associated with reductions in methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. The January 2003 regulation's focus on imports/exports rather than domestic distribution may help explain its lack of impact. In contrast, the two other regulations had salient domestic foci - domestic precursor sales (July 2003) and domestic essential chemical manufacturing (January 2004). Both regulations, however, were associated with increases in admissions, rather than declines. Government reports indicate that a shift in methamphetamine production, from smaller-scale operators to more sophisticated crime organizations (groups better able to circumvent the regulations), occurred around the times of the regulations. Such a shift could increase supply and possibly admissions.

AB - Background: In response to its domestic methamphetamine problems and an emerging international consensus that methamphetamine precursor and essential chemicals should be controlled, Canada regulated its import/export of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (precursor chemicals) in January 2003, its domestic distribution of those chemicals in July 2003, and its import/export and manufacturing of essential chemicals (e.g., toluene) in January 2004. This study examines the regulations' impact on the problem of methamphetamine-related hospital admissions in Canada. Methods: ARIMA-based intervention time-series analysis was used to assess impacts on monthly counts of Canada's methamphetamine-related acute-care hospital admissions (04/1996 to 03/2005). Cocaine-, heroin/opioid-, and alcohol-related hospital admissions were examined as quasi-control time-series. Results: No impact was found for the January 2003 regulation. The July 2003 and January 2004 regulations were associated with 20% and 21% increases, respectively, in methamphetamine-related admissions. No impacts on the quasi-control time-series were found. Conclusions: This study indicates that Canada's regulations were not associated with reductions in methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. The January 2003 regulation's focus on imports/exports rather than domestic distribution may help explain its lack of impact. In contrast, the two other regulations had salient domestic foci - domestic precursor sales (July 2003) and domestic essential chemical manufacturing (January 2004). Both regulations, however, were associated with increases in admissions, rather than declines. Government reports indicate that a shift in methamphetamine production, from smaller-scale operators to more sophisticated crime organizations (groups better able to circumvent the regulations), occurred around the times of the regulations. Such a shift could increase supply and possibly admissions.

KW - ARIMA

KW - Canada

KW - Ephedrine

KW - Hospitalization

KW - Methamphetamine

KW - Precursor chemical legislation

KW - Pseudoephedrine

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349863380&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349863380&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.024

DO - 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.06.024

M3 - Article

C2 - 19699042

AN - SCOPUS:70349863380

VL - 105

SP - 185

EP - 193

JO - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

JF - Drug and Alcohol Dependence

SN - 0376-8716

IS - 3

ER -