Implementation intentions and imagery: Individual and combined effects on prospective memory among young adults

Craig McFarland, Elizabeth L Glisky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prospective memory (PM) has been found to benefit from implementation intentions (i. e., "when I see X, I will do Y"). However, to date, it is unclear whether implementation intentions must incorporate imagery in order to produce a positive effect on PM, or whether the verbal statement alone is sufficient. It is also equivocal whether the use of visual imagery alone improves PM, absent an intentional statement. The present study investigated the individual influences of implementation intentions and imagery, as well as their combined effect, on PM. A total of 64 undergraduates were placed into one of four instructional conditions-read-only, implementation intention, imagery, or combined-and were then tested on a laboratory PM task. The results revealed that participants in the implementation intention, imagery, and combined groups completed significantly more PM tasks than did participants in the read-only group, but they did not differ from one another. Combining implementation intentions and imagery, however, did not improve PM performance over either strategy alone. Additionally, the implementation intention and imagery groups outperformed the read-only group on a secondary ongoing digit detection task. The results of this study suggest that implementation intentions do not require imagery to be effective in improving PM, and that imagery alone has positive effects on PM. Finally, the results of the ongoing digit detection task suggest that the use of implementation intentions and imagery might provide for automatic identification and processing of environmental cues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-69
Number of pages8
JournalMemory and Cognition
Volume40
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Episodic Memory
Imagery (Psychotherapy)
Young Adult
Young Adults
Imagery
Intentions
Prospective Memory
Cues

Keywords

  • Imagery
  • Implementation intentions
  • Prospective memory
  • Strategies
  • Young adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Implementation intentions and imagery : Individual and combined effects on prospective memory among young adults. / McFarland, Craig; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

In: Memory and Cognition, Vol. 40, No. 1, 01.2012, p. 62-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{be94d44048d6455cab2ec04345de39c9,
title = "Implementation intentions and imagery: Individual and combined effects on prospective memory among young adults",
abstract = "Prospective memory (PM) has been found to benefit from implementation intentions (i. e., {"}when I see X, I will do Y{"}). However, to date, it is unclear whether implementation intentions must incorporate imagery in order to produce a positive effect on PM, or whether the verbal statement alone is sufficient. It is also equivocal whether the use of visual imagery alone improves PM, absent an intentional statement. The present study investigated the individual influences of implementation intentions and imagery, as well as their combined effect, on PM. A total of 64 undergraduates were placed into one of four instructional conditions-read-only, implementation intention, imagery, or combined-and were then tested on a laboratory PM task. The results revealed that participants in the implementation intention, imagery, and combined groups completed significantly more PM tasks than did participants in the read-only group, but they did not differ from one another. Combining implementation intentions and imagery, however, did not improve PM performance over either strategy alone. Additionally, the implementation intention and imagery groups outperformed the read-only group on a secondary ongoing digit detection task. The results of this study suggest that implementation intentions do not require imagery to be effective in improving PM, and that imagery alone has positive effects on PM. Finally, the results of the ongoing digit detection task suggest that the use of implementation intentions and imagery might provide for automatic identification and processing of environmental cues.",
keywords = "Imagery, Implementation intentions, Prospective memory, Strategies, Young adults",
author = "Craig McFarland and Glisky, {Elizabeth L}",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
doi = "10.3758/s13421-011-0126-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "40",
pages = "62--69",
journal = "Memory and Cognition",
issn = "0090-502X",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Implementation intentions and imagery

T2 - Individual and combined effects on prospective memory among young adults

AU - McFarland, Craig

AU - Glisky, Elizabeth L

PY - 2012/1

Y1 - 2012/1

N2 - Prospective memory (PM) has been found to benefit from implementation intentions (i. e., "when I see X, I will do Y"). However, to date, it is unclear whether implementation intentions must incorporate imagery in order to produce a positive effect on PM, or whether the verbal statement alone is sufficient. It is also equivocal whether the use of visual imagery alone improves PM, absent an intentional statement. The present study investigated the individual influences of implementation intentions and imagery, as well as their combined effect, on PM. A total of 64 undergraduates were placed into one of four instructional conditions-read-only, implementation intention, imagery, or combined-and were then tested on a laboratory PM task. The results revealed that participants in the implementation intention, imagery, and combined groups completed significantly more PM tasks than did participants in the read-only group, but they did not differ from one another. Combining implementation intentions and imagery, however, did not improve PM performance over either strategy alone. Additionally, the implementation intention and imagery groups outperformed the read-only group on a secondary ongoing digit detection task. The results of this study suggest that implementation intentions do not require imagery to be effective in improving PM, and that imagery alone has positive effects on PM. Finally, the results of the ongoing digit detection task suggest that the use of implementation intentions and imagery might provide for automatic identification and processing of environmental cues.

AB - Prospective memory (PM) has been found to benefit from implementation intentions (i. e., "when I see X, I will do Y"). However, to date, it is unclear whether implementation intentions must incorporate imagery in order to produce a positive effect on PM, or whether the verbal statement alone is sufficient. It is also equivocal whether the use of visual imagery alone improves PM, absent an intentional statement. The present study investigated the individual influences of implementation intentions and imagery, as well as their combined effect, on PM. A total of 64 undergraduates were placed into one of four instructional conditions-read-only, implementation intention, imagery, or combined-and were then tested on a laboratory PM task. The results revealed that participants in the implementation intention, imagery, and combined groups completed significantly more PM tasks than did participants in the read-only group, but they did not differ from one another. Combining implementation intentions and imagery, however, did not improve PM performance over either strategy alone. Additionally, the implementation intention and imagery groups outperformed the read-only group on a secondary ongoing digit detection task. The results of this study suggest that implementation intentions do not require imagery to be effective in improving PM, and that imagery alone has positive effects on PM. Finally, the results of the ongoing digit detection task suggest that the use of implementation intentions and imagery might provide for automatic identification and processing of environmental cues.

KW - Imagery

KW - Implementation intentions

KW - Prospective memory

KW - Strategies

KW - Young adults

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84555170801&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84555170801&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3758/s13421-011-0126-8

DO - 10.3758/s13421-011-0126-8

M3 - Article

C2 - 21732204

AN - SCOPUS:84555170801

VL - 40

SP - 62

EP - 69

JO - Memory and Cognition

JF - Memory and Cognition

SN - 0090-502X

IS - 1

ER -