Simulations were used to compare evolution of insecticide resistance predicted by a conventional two-allele model with predictions from three- and four-allele models that assume resistance is based on gene amplification. Results were similar between models when insecticide concentration was low or moderate. In contrast, when 10% of the population was not exposed to insecticide each generation, high insecticide concentrations slowed resistance development in the two-allele model, but caused rapid development of high levels of resistance in the three- and four-allele models. The presence of a third allele at an initial frequency as low as 10-7 doubled or tripled the rate of resistance development in some cases. Attempts to slow evolution of resistance by overwhelming it with high concentrations of insecticides are not likely to succeed if gene amplification or other mechanisms generate alleles that confer high levels of resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science