BACKGROUND - The 2005 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care changed the previous ventilations-to-chest- compression algorithm for bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from 2 ventilations before each 15 chest compressions (2:15 CPR) to 30 chest compressions before 2 ventilations (30:2 CPR). It was acknowledged in the guidelines that the change was based on a consensus rather than clear evidence. This study was designed to compare 24-hour neurologically normal survival between the initial applications of continuous chest compressions without assisted ventilations with 30:2 CPR in a swine model of witnessed out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS - Sixty-four animals underwent 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation before defibrillation attempts. They were divided into 4 groups, each with increasing durations (3, 4, 5, and 6 minutes, respectively) of untreated ventricular fibrillation before the initiation of bystander resuscitation consisting of either continuous chest compression or 30:2 CPR. After the various untreated ventricular durations plus bystander resuscitation durations, all animals were given the first defibrillation attempt 12 minutes after the induction of ventricular fibrillation, followed by the 2005 guideline-recommended advanced cardiac life support. Neurologically normal survival at 24 hours after resuscitation was observed in 23 of 33 (70%) of the animals in the continuous chest compression groups but in only 13 of 31 (42%) of the 30:2 CPR groups (P=0.025). CONCLUSIONS - In a realistic model of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, initial bystander administration of continuous chest compressions without assisted ventilations resulted in significantly better 24-hour postresuscitation neurologically normal survival than did the initial bystander administration of 2005 guideline-recommended 30:2 CPR.
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Heart arrest
- Ventricular fibrillation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)