In vitro bioaccessibility, phase partitioning, and health risk of potentially toxic elements in dust of an iron mining and industrial complex

Naghmeh Soltani, Behnam Keshavarzi, Farid Moore, Mark Cave, Armin Sorooshian, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi, Reza Golshani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Dust emitted from mining, ore processing, and tailing dumps have direct effects on miners who work close to these operations. The Gol-E-Gohar (GEG) mining and industrial company is one of the most important iron concentrate producers in the Middle East. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution, fractionation, and oral bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in dust generated by the GEG mining and industrial company. Total PTE content including Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn was quantified for suspended particulate matter (PM) in PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particulate matter (TSP). As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb were quantified in fallout dust samples for oral bioaccessibility using in vitro Unified BARGE (UBM) Method and modified BCR fractionation analysis. Enrichment factors (EF) were calculated for the studied elements in PM; Cu, Fe, and As were found to be extremely enriched. Oral bioaccessibility of selected PTEs in fallout dust samples ranged from 0.35% to 41.55% and 0.06–37.58% in the gastric and intestinal phases, respectively. Regression modeling revealed that the bioaccessibilities of the PTEs could mostly be explained by total concentrations in dust particles. Average daily intake (ADI) calculations revealed that the intake of PTEs did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) values and as such was not considered a significant risk to workers. Additionally, the hazard quotients (HQ) and carcinogenic risk (CR) values were lower than the acceptable level. This study can provide further risk assessment and management of PTE pollution in occupational environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111972
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume212
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021

Keywords

  • Fallout dust
  • Health risk assessment
  • Oral bioaccessibility
  • Ore processing
  • Particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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