The time-kill curve methodology was used to determine the pharmacodynamics of piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and the combinations piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam. Kill curve studies were performed for piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam at concentrations of 0.25 to 50 times the MICs for 13 strains of bacteria: four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, three Enterobacter cloacae, three Klebsiella pneumoniae, and three Staphylococcus aureus isolates (tazobactam concentrations of 0.5, 4, and 12 μg/ml). By using a sigmoid E(max) model and nonlinear least squares regression, the 50% lethal concentrations and the maximum lethal rates of each agent were determined for each bacterial strain. For piperacillin-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin- piperacillin-tazobactam, kill curve studies were performed with concentrations obtained by the fractional maximal effect method (R. C. Li, J. J. Schentag, and D. E. Nix, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:523-531, 1993) and from individual 50% lethal concentrations and maximum lethal rates. Ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam was evaluated only against the four P. aeruginosa strains. Interactions between piperacillin and ciprofloxacin were generally additive. At physiologically relevant concentrations of piperacillin and ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin had the highest rates of killing against K. pneumoniae. Piperacillin-tazobactam (12 μg/ml) had the highest rate of killing against E. cloacae. Piperacillin-ciprofloxacin with relatively higher ciprofloxacin concentrations had the greatest killing rates against S. aureus. This combination had significantly higher killing rates than piperacillin (P < 0.002). For all the bacterial strains tested, killing rates by ciprofloxacin were significantly higher than those by piperacillin (P < 0.001). Piperacillin-tazobactam (4 and 12 μg/ml) had significantly higher killing rates than piperacillin alone (P < 0.02 and P < 0.004, respectively). The effect of the combination of piperacillin-ciprofloxacin, in which piperacillin concentrations were relatively higher, was not statistically different from that of piperacillin alone (P ≥ 0.71). The combination of ciprofloxacin-piperacillin-tazobactam achieved greater killing than other combinations or monotherapies against P. aeruginosa. The reduction in the initial inoculum was 1 to 4 logs greater with ciprofloxacin- piperacillin-tazobactam at 4 and 12 μg/ml than with any other agent or combination of agents. On the basis of the additive effects prevalently demonstrated in the in vitro study, the combinations piperacillin- ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam are rational therapeutic options. Greater killing of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated with ciprofloxacin- piperacillin-tazobactam. Since treatment failure of P. aeruginosa pneumonia is a significant problem, clinical studies are warranted.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy|
|Publication status||Published - 1995|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)