In the present study we used both in vivo and in vitro murine models to investigate the effects of cocaine on the release of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α by peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IFN-γ produced by splenocytes. In vitro cocaine (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/ml) exposure inhibited all cytokines produced by ConA-stimulated spleen cells and LPS-stimulated macrophages in a concentration dependent manner. Different effects of cocaine administration on cytokine production were observed when female C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with cocaine (40 mg/kg body weight for six weeks). Secretion of IL-2 by splenocytes was significantly enhanced by cocaine administration, whereas IFN-γ was not affected. Secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 by splenocytes was significantly inhibited by cocaine administration, while secretion of IL-5 by splenocytes was significantly enhanced. Secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α by splenocytes was significantly enhanced by cocaine administration. Secretion of IL-6 by peritoneal macrophages was also significantly enhanced by the cocaine, while production of IL-1α was not affected. However, release of TNF-α by peritoneal macrophages was significantly reduced by the cocaine administration. Therefore use of cocaine may alter the balance of cytokine production, and thereby adversely affects immune response and host defense.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)