Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside

Amy E. Millen, Mary Pettinger, Jo L. Freudenheim, Robert D. Langer, Carol A. Rosenberg, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Christine M. Duffy, Dorothy S. Lane, Anne McTiernan, Lewis H. Kuller, Ana Maria Lopez, Jean Wactawski-Wende

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There have been reports of greater breast cancer incidence and mortality at northern compared with southern latitudes postulated to be related to vitamin D exposure. Among 71,662 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS) free of cancer at baseline (1993-1998), associations were explored between incident invasive postmenopausal breast cancer (n = 2,535), over ̃8.6 years follow-up, and the following: (a) region of residence at birth, age 15 years, age 35 years; (b) region of residence at WHIOS baseline; and (c) clinic center solar irradiance. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were estimated after adjustment for individual level confounders. There was no difference in breast cancer risk by region of earlier life, baseline residence, or solar irradiance measured in Langelys (gm-cal) per cm 2. There was an observed 15% decreased risk among women residing in areas of low versus high solar irradiance measured in Watts per m 2 (95% CI, 2-26%). However, the associated P trend of 0.20 was not significant. Conversely, women who reported spending on average <30 minutes versus >2 hours outside in daylight year round at WHIOS year 4follow-up (n = 46,926), had a 20% (95% CI, 2-41%; P trend = 0.001) increased risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, region of residence and geographic solar irradiance are not consistently related to risk of breast cancer and may not be sufficient proxy measures for sunlight/vitamin D exposure. The observed association between time spent outside and breast cancer risk support the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-507
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2009

Fingerprint

Geographic Locations
Breast Neoplasms
Women's Health
Vitamin D
Observational Studies
Confidence Intervals
Sunlight
Proxy
Parturition
Mortality
Incidence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Millen, A. E., Pettinger, M., Freudenheim, J. L., Langer, R. D., Rosenberg, C. A., Mossavar-Rahmani, Y., ... Wactawski-Wende, J. (2009). Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(2), 495-507. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0652

Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside. / Millen, Amy E.; Pettinger, Mary; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Langer, Robert D.; Rosenberg, Carol A.; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Duffy, Christine M.; Lane, Dorothy S.; McTiernan, Anne; Kuller, Lewis H.; Lopez, Ana Maria; Wactawski-Wende, Jean.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 18, No. 2, 02.2009, p. 495-507.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Millen, AE, Pettinger, M, Freudenheim, JL, Langer, RD, Rosenberg, CA, Mossavar-Rahmani, Y, Duffy, CM, Lane, DS, McTiernan, A, Kuller, LH, Lopez, AM & Wactawski-Wende, J 2009, 'Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside', Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 495-507. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0652
Millen, Amy E. ; Pettinger, Mary ; Freudenheim, Jo L. ; Langer, Robert D. ; Rosenberg, Carol A. ; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin ; Duffy, Christine M. ; Lane, Dorothy S. ; McTiernan, Anne ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Lopez, Ana Maria ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean. / Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2009 ; Vol. 18, No. 2. pp. 495-507.
@article{fd86972937044c8bbd8576d79c869eb4,
title = "Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside",
abstract = "There have been reports of greater breast cancer incidence and mortality at northern compared with southern latitudes postulated to be related to vitamin D exposure. Among 71,662 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS) free of cancer at baseline (1993-1998), associations were explored between incident invasive postmenopausal breast cancer (n = 2,535), over ̃8.6 years follow-up, and the following: (a) region of residence at birth, age 15 years, age 35 years; (b) region of residence at WHIOS baseline; and (c) clinic center solar irradiance. Hazard ratios and 95{\%} confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were estimated after adjustment for individual level confounders. There was no difference in breast cancer risk by region of earlier life, baseline residence, or solar irradiance measured in Langelys (gm-cal) per cm 2. There was an observed 15{\%} decreased risk among women residing in areas of low versus high solar irradiance measured in Watts per m 2 (95{\%} CI, 2-26{\%}). However, the associated P trend of 0.20 was not significant. Conversely, women who reported spending on average <30 minutes versus >2 hours outside in daylight year round at WHIOS year 4follow-up (n = 46,926), had a 20{\%} (95{\%} CI, 2-41{\%}; P trend = 0.001) increased risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, region of residence and geographic solar irradiance are not consistently related to risk of breast cancer and may not be sufficient proxy measures for sunlight/vitamin D exposure. The observed association between time spent outside and breast cancer risk support the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer.",
author = "Millen, {Amy E.} and Mary Pettinger and Freudenheim, {Jo L.} and Langer, {Robert D.} and Rosenberg, {Carol A.} and Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani and Duffy, {Christine M.} and Lane, {Dorothy S.} and Anne McTiernan and Kuller, {Lewis H.} and Lopez, {Ana Maria} and Jean Wactawski-Wende",
year = "2009",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0652",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "495--507",
journal = "Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention",
issn = "1055-9965",
publisher = "American Association for Cancer Research Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Incident invasive breast cancer, geographic location of residence, and reported average time spent outside

AU - Millen, Amy E.

AU - Pettinger, Mary

AU - Freudenheim, Jo L.

AU - Langer, Robert D.

AU - Rosenberg, Carol A.

AU - Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin

AU - Duffy, Christine M.

AU - Lane, Dorothy S.

AU - McTiernan, Anne

AU - Kuller, Lewis H.

AU - Lopez, Ana Maria

AU - Wactawski-Wende, Jean

PY - 2009/2

Y1 - 2009/2

N2 - There have been reports of greater breast cancer incidence and mortality at northern compared with southern latitudes postulated to be related to vitamin D exposure. Among 71,662 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS) free of cancer at baseline (1993-1998), associations were explored between incident invasive postmenopausal breast cancer (n = 2,535), over ̃8.6 years follow-up, and the following: (a) region of residence at birth, age 15 years, age 35 years; (b) region of residence at WHIOS baseline; and (c) clinic center solar irradiance. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were estimated after adjustment for individual level confounders. There was no difference in breast cancer risk by region of earlier life, baseline residence, or solar irradiance measured in Langelys (gm-cal) per cm 2. There was an observed 15% decreased risk among women residing in areas of low versus high solar irradiance measured in Watts per m 2 (95% CI, 2-26%). However, the associated P trend of 0.20 was not significant. Conversely, women who reported spending on average <30 minutes versus >2 hours outside in daylight year round at WHIOS year 4follow-up (n = 46,926), had a 20% (95% CI, 2-41%; P trend = 0.001) increased risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, region of residence and geographic solar irradiance are not consistently related to risk of breast cancer and may not be sufficient proxy measures for sunlight/vitamin D exposure. The observed association between time spent outside and breast cancer risk support the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer.

AB - There have been reports of greater breast cancer incidence and mortality at northern compared with southern latitudes postulated to be related to vitamin D exposure. Among 71,662 participants in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHIOS) free of cancer at baseline (1993-1998), associations were explored between incident invasive postmenopausal breast cancer (n = 2,535), over ̃8.6 years follow-up, and the following: (a) region of residence at birth, age 15 years, age 35 years; (b) region of residence at WHIOS baseline; and (c) clinic center solar irradiance. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer were estimated after adjustment for individual level confounders. There was no difference in breast cancer risk by region of earlier life, baseline residence, or solar irradiance measured in Langelys (gm-cal) per cm 2. There was an observed 15% decreased risk among women residing in areas of low versus high solar irradiance measured in Watts per m 2 (95% CI, 2-26%). However, the associated P trend of 0.20 was not significant. Conversely, women who reported spending on average <30 minutes versus >2 hours outside in daylight year round at WHIOS year 4follow-up (n = 46,926), had a 20% (95% CI, 2-41%; P trend = 0.001) increased risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, region of residence and geographic solar irradiance are not consistently related to risk of breast cancer and may not be sufficient proxy measures for sunlight/vitamin D exposure. The observed association between time spent outside and breast cancer risk support the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against breast cancer.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=60549101061&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=60549101061&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0652

DO - 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0652

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 495

EP - 507

JO - Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

JF - Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention

SN - 1055-9965

IS - 2

ER -