Increased Akt signaling in the fat body of Anopheles stephensi extends lifespan and increases lifetime fecundity through modulation of insulin-like peptides

Lewis V. Hun, Shirley Luckhart, Michael A Riehle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (IIS) cascade regulate numerous physiological functions, including lifespan, reproduction, immunity, and metabolism, in diverse eukaryotes. We previously demonstrated that in female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, activation of the IIS cascade in the fat body led to a significant increase in lifespan. In this work, we elucidated two putative mechanisms in A. stephensi behind the observed lifespan extension and assessed whether this lifespan extension confers an overall fitness advantage to the mosquito. Specifically, we demonstrated that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body following a blood meal significantly suppressed the expression of ILP2 in the head. Moreover, overexpression of active Akt in the fat body altered the expression of a putative insulin binding protein ortholog, Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), in response to transgene expression. Combined, these two factors may act to reduce overall levels of circulating ILP2 or other ILPs in the mosquito, in turn conferring increased survival. We also examined the impact increased fat body IIS had on lifetime fecundity and demonstrated that transgenic female mosquito populations had higher lifetime fecundity relative to non-transgenic sibling controls. These studies provide new insights into the complex hormonal and molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between IIS, aging, and reproduction in this important vector of human malaria parasites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103932
JournalJournal of Insect Physiology
Volume118
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

Fingerprint

Anopheles stephensi
Anopheles
Fat Body
fat body
Culicidae
Fertility
fecundity
insulin
peptides
Insulin
Peptides
Reproduction
Aedes
blood meal
somatomedins
Somatomedins
Aedes aegypti
Eukaryota
Transgenes
Morphogenesis

Keywords

  • Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2
  • Imp-L2
  • Insulin binding protein
  • Insulin signaling
  • Insulin-like peptide
  • Mosquito

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Insect Science

Cite this

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title = "Increased Akt signaling in the fat body of Anopheles stephensi extends lifespan and increases lifetime fecundity through modulation of insulin-like peptides",
abstract = "Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (IIS) cascade regulate numerous physiological functions, including lifespan, reproduction, immunity, and metabolism, in diverse eukaryotes. We previously demonstrated that in female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, activation of the IIS cascade in the fat body led to a significant increase in lifespan. In this work, we elucidated two putative mechanisms in A. stephensi behind the observed lifespan extension and assessed whether this lifespan extension confers an overall fitness advantage to the mosquito. Specifically, we demonstrated that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body following a blood meal significantly suppressed the expression of ILP2 in the head. Moreover, overexpression of active Akt in the fat body altered the expression of a putative insulin binding protein ortholog, Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), in response to transgene expression. Combined, these two factors may act to reduce overall levels of circulating ILP2 or other ILPs in the mosquito, in turn conferring increased survival. We also examined the impact increased fat body IIS had on lifetime fecundity and demonstrated that transgenic female mosquito populations had higher lifetime fecundity relative to non-transgenic sibling controls. These studies provide new insights into the complex hormonal and molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between IIS, aging, and reproduction in this important vector of human malaria parasites.",
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AU - Luckhart, Shirley

AU - Riehle, Michael A

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N2 - Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (IIS) cascade regulate numerous physiological functions, including lifespan, reproduction, immunity, and metabolism, in diverse eukaryotes. We previously demonstrated that in female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, activation of the IIS cascade in the fat body led to a significant increase in lifespan. In this work, we elucidated two putative mechanisms in A. stephensi behind the observed lifespan extension and assessed whether this lifespan extension confers an overall fitness advantage to the mosquito. Specifically, we demonstrated that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body following a blood meal significantly suppressed the expression of ILP2 in the head. Moreover, overexpression of active Akt in the fat body altered the expression of a putative insulin binding protein ortholog, Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), in response to transgene expression. Combined, these two factors may act to reduce overall levels of circulating ILP2 or other ILPs in the mosquito, in turn conferring increased survival. We also examined the impact increased fat body IIS had on lifetime fecundity and demonstrated that transgenic female mosquito populations had higher lifetime fecundity relative to non-transgenic sibling controls. These studies provide new insights into the complex hormonal and molecular mechanisms regulating the interplay between IIS, aging, and reproduction in this important vector of human malaria parasites.

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