Increased resolution of y chromosome haplogroup t defines relationships among populations of the near east, Europe, and Africa

Fernando L. Mendez, Tatiana Karafet, Thomas Krahn, Harry Ostrer, Himla Soodyall, Michael F Hammer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Increasing phylogenetic resolution of the Y chromosome haplogroup tree has led to finer temporal and spatial resolution for studies of human migration. Haplogroup T, initially known as K2 and defined by mutation M70, is found at variable frequencies across West Asia, Africa, and Europe. While several SNPs were recently discovered that extended the length of the branch leading to haplogroup T, only two SNPs are known to mark internal branches of haplogroup T. This low level of phylogenetic resolution has hindered studies of the origin and dispersal of this interesting haplogroup, which is found in Near Eastern non-Jewish populations, Jewish populations from several communities, and in the patrilineage of President Thomas Jefferson. Here we map 10 new SNPs that, together with the previously known SNPs, mark 11 lineages and two large subclades (T1a and T1b) of haplogroup T. We also report a new SNP that links haplogroups T and L within the major framework of Y chromosome evolution. Estimates of the timing of the branching events within haplogroup T, along with a comprehensive geographic survey of the major T subclades, suggest that this haplogroup began to diversify in the Near East ~25 kya. Our survey also points to a complex history of dispersal of this rare and informative haplogroup within the Near East and from the Near East to Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. The presence of T1a2 chromosomes in Near Eastern Jewish and non-Jewish populations may reflect early exiles between the ancient lands of Israel and Babylon. The presence of different subclades of T chromosomes in Europe may be explained by both the spread of Neolithic farmers and the later dispersal of Jews from the Near East. Finally, the moderately high frequency (~18%) of T1b* chromosomes in the Lemba of southern Africa supports the hypothesis of a Near Eastern, but not necessarily a Jewish, origin for their paternal line.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-53
Number of pages15
JournalHuman Biology
Volume83
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2011

Fingerprint

Eastern Africa
Middle East
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
chromosome
Chromosomes
chromosomes
Y chromosome
Population
Y Chromosome
Ancient Lands
Jews
West Asia
Human Migration
Leucaena leucocephala
phylogeny
phylogenetics
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18
Sub-Saharan Africa
Southern Africa
Western Africa

Keywords

  • Jewish
  • Lemba
  • Neolithic
  • Y chromosome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Increased resolution of y chromosome haplogroup t defines relationships among populations of the near east, Europe, and Africa. / Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana; Krahn, Thomas; Ostrer, Harry; Soodyall, Himla; Hammer, Michael F.

In: Human Biology, Vol. 83, No. 1, 02.2011, p. 39-53.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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