Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, William C Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. HudsonA. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, F. P J Valero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

978 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects. The haze particles consisted of several inorganic and carbonaceous species, including absorbing black carbon clusters, fly ash, and mineral dust. The most striking result was the large loading of aerosols over most of the South Asian region and the North Indian Ocean. The January to March 1999 visible optical depths were about 0.5 over most of the continent and reached values as large as 0.2 over the equatorial Indian ocean due to long-range transport. The aerosol layer extended as high as 3 km. Black carbon contributed about 14% to the fine particle mass and 11% to the visible optical depth. The single-scattering albedo estimated by several independent methods was consistently around 0.9 both inland and over the open ocean. Anthropogenic sources contributed as much as 80% (±10%) to the aerosol loading and the optical depth. The in situ data, which clearly support the existence of the first indirect effect (increased aerosol concentration producing more cloud drops with smaller effective radii), are used to develop a composite indirect effect scheme. The Indo-Asian aerosols impact the radiative forcing through a complex set of heating (positive forcing) and cooling (negative forcing) processes. Clouds and black carbon emerge as the major players. The dominant factor, however, is the large negative forcing (-20 ± 4 W m-2) at the surface and the comparably large atmospheric heating. Regionally, the absorbing haze decreased the surface solar radiation by an amount comparable to 50% of the total ocean heat flux and nearly doubled the lower tropospheric solar heating. We demonstrate with a general circulation model how this additional heating significantly perturbs the tropical rainfall patterns and the hydrological cycle with implications to global climate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2001JD900133
Pages (from-to)28371-28398
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume106
Issue numberD22
StatePublished - Nov 27 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

haze
climate forcing
Indian Ocean
climate effect
Aerosols
climate
aerosols
aerosol
black carbon
optical thickness
optical depth
Soot
experiment
Experiments
heating
Heating
carbon
oceans
atmospheric heating
Southeast Asia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Oceanography

Cite this

Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P. J., Lelieveld, J., Mitra, A. P., Althausen, D., Anderson, J., ... Valero, F. P. J. (2001). Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 106(D22), 28371-28398. [2001JD900133].

Indian Ocean Experiment : An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. / Ramanathan, V.; Crutzen, P. J.; Lelieveld, J.; Mitra, A. P.; Althausen, D.; Anderson, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Cantrell, W.; Cass, G. R.; Chung, C. E.; Clarke, A. D.; Coakley, J. A.; Collins, W. D.; Conant, William C; Dulac, F.; Heintzenberg, J.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Holben, B.; Howell, S.; Hudson, J.; Jayaraman, A.; Kiehl, J. T.; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Lubin, D.; McFarquhar, G.; Novakov, T.; Ogren, J. A.; Podgorny, I. A.; Prather, K.; Priestley, K.; Prospero, J. M.; Quinn, P. K.; Rajeev, K.; Rasch, P.; Rupert, S.; Sadourny, R.; Satheesh, S. K.; Shaw, G. E.; Sheridan, P.; Valero, F. P J.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, No. D22, 2001JD900133, 27.11.2001, p. 28371-28398.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramanathan, V, Crutzen, PJ, Lelieveld, J, Mitra, AP, Althausen, D, Anderson, J, Andreae, MO, Cantrell, W, Cass, GR, Chung, CE, Clarke, AD, Coakley, JA, Collins, WD, Conant, WC, Dulac, F, Heintzenberg, J, Heymsfield, AJ, Holben, B, Howell, S, Hudson, J, Jayaraman, A, Kiehl, JT, Krishnamurti, TN, Lubin, D, McFarquhar, G, Novakov, T, Ogren, JA, Podgorny, IA, Prather, K, Priestley, K, Prospero, JM, Quinn, PK, Rajeev, K, Rasch, P, Rupert, S, Sadourny, R, Satheesh, SK, Shaw, GE, Sheridan, P & Valero, FPJ 2001, 'Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze', Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol. 106, no. D22, 2001JD900133, pp. 28371-28398.
Ramanathan V, Crutzen PJ, Lelieveld J, Mitra AP, Althausen D, Anderson J et al. Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2001 Nov 27;106(D22):28371-28398. 2001JD900133.
Ramanathan, V. ; Crutzen, P. J. ; Lelieveld, J. ; Mitra, A. P. ; Althausen, D. ; Anderson, J. ; Andreae, M. O. ; Cantrell, W. ; Cass, G. R. ; Chung, C. E. ; Clarke, A. D. ; Coakley, J. A. ; Collins, W. D. ; Conant, William C ; Dulac, F. ; Heintzenberg, J. ; Heymsfield, A. J. ; Holben, B. ; Howell, S. ; Hudson, J. ; Jayaraman, A. ; Kiehl, J. T. ; Krishnamurti, T. N. ; Lubin, D. ; McFarquhar, G. ; Novakov, T. ; Ogren, J. A. ; Podgorny, I. A. ; Prather, K. ; Priestley, K. ; Prospero, J. M. ; Quinn, P. K. ; Rajeev, K. ; Rasch, P. ; Rupert, S. ; Sadourny, R. ; Satheesh, S. K. ; Shaw, G. E. ; Sheridan, P. ; Valero, F. P J. / Indian Ocean Experiment : An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. In: Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 2001 ; Vol. 106, No. D22. pp. 28371-28398.
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abstract = "Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects. The haze particles consisted of several inorganic and carbonaceous species, including absorbing black carbon clusters, fly ash, and mineral dust. The most striking result was the large loading of aerosols over most of the South Asian region and the North Indian Ocean. The January to March 1999 visible optical depths were about 0.5 over most of the continent and reached values as large as 0.2 over the equatorial Indian ocean due to long-range transport. The aerosol layer extended as high as 3 km. Black carbon contributed about 14{\%} to the fine particle mass and 11{\%} to the visible optical depth. The single-scattering albedo estimated by several independent methods was consistently around 0.9 both inland and over the open ocean. Anthropogenic sources contributed as much as 80{\%} (±10{\%}) to the aerosol loading and the optical depth. The in situ data, which clearly support the existence of the first indirect effect (increased aerosol concentration producing more cloud drops with smaller effective radii), are used to develop a composite indirect effect scheme. The Indo-Asian aerosols impact the radiative forcing through a complex set of heating (positive forcing) and cooling (negative forcing) processes. Clouds and black carbon emerge as the major players. The dominant factor, however, is the large negative forcing (-20 ± 4 W m-2) at the surface and the comparably large atmospheric heating. Regionally, the absorbing haze decreased the surface solar radiation by an amount comparable to 50{\%} of the total ocean heat flux and nearly doubled the lower tropospheric solar heating. We demonstrate with a general circulation model how this additional heating significantly perturbs the tropical rainfall patterns and the hydrological cycle with implications to global climate.",
author = "V. Ramanathan and Crutzen, {P. J.} and J. Lelieveld and Mitra, {A. P.} and D. Althausen and J. Anderson and Andreae, {M. O.} and W. Cantrell and Cass, {G. R.} and Chung, {C. E.} and Clarke, {A. D.} and Coakley, {J. A.} and Collins, {W. D.} and Conant, {William C} and F. Dulac and J. Heintzenberg and Heymsfield, {A. J.} and B. Holben and S. Howell and J. Hudson and A. Jayaraman and Kiehl, {J. T.} and Krishnamurti, {T. N.} and D. Lubin and G. McFarquhar and T. Novakov and Ogren, {J. A.} and Podgorny, {I. A.} and K. Prather and K. Priestley and Prospero, {J. M.} and Quinn, {P. K.} and K. Rajeev and P. Rasch and S. Rupert and R. Sadourny and Satheesh, {S. K.} and Shaw, {G. E.} and P. Sheridan and Valero, {F. P J}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Indian Ocean Experiment

T2 - An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze

AU - Ramanathan, V.

AU - Crutzen, P. J.

AU - Lelieveld, J.

AU - Mitra, A. P.

AU - Althausen, D.

AU - Anderson, J.

AU - Andreae, M. O.

AU - Cantrell, W.

AU - Cass, G. R.

AU - Chung, C. E.

AU - Clarke, A. D.

AU - Coakley, J. A.

AU - Collins, W. D.

AU - Conant, William C

AU - Dulac, F.

AU - Heintzenberg, J.

AU - Heymsfield, A. J.

AU - Holben, B.

AU - Howell, S.

AU - Hudson, J.

AU - Jayaraman, A.

AU - Kiehl, J. T.

AU - Krishnamurti, T. N.

AU - Lubin, D.

AU - McFarquhar, G.

AU - Novakov, T.

AU - Ogren, J. A.

AU - Podgorny, I. A.

AU - Prather, K.

AU - Priestley, K.

AU - Prospero, J. M.

AU - Quinn, P. K.

AU - Rajeev, K.

AU - Rasch, P.

AU - Rupert, S.

AU - Sadourny, R.

AU - Satheesh, S. K.

AU - Shaw, G. E.

AU - Sheridan, P.

AU - Valero, F. P J

PY - 2001/11/27

Y1 - 2001/11/27

N2 - Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects. The haze particles consisted of several inorganic and carbonaceous species, including absorbing black carbon clusters, fly ash, and mineral dust. The most striking result was the large loading of aerosols over most of the South Asian region and the North Indian Ocean. The January to March 1999 visible optical depths were about 0.5 over most of the continent and reached values as large as 0.2 over the equatorial Indian ocean due to long-range transport. The aerosol layer extended as high as 3 km. Black carbon contributed about 14% to the fine particle mass and 11% to the visible optical depth. The single-scattering albedo estimated by several independent methods was consistently around 0.9 both inland and over the open ocean. Anthropogenic sources contributed as much as 80% (±10%) to the aerosol loading and the optical depth. The in situ data, which clearly support the existence of the first indirect effect (increased aerosol concentration producing more cloud drops with smaller effective radii), are used to develop a composite indirect effect scheme. The Indo-Asian aerosols impact the radiative forcing through a complex set of heating (positive forcing) and cooling (negative forcing) processes. Clouds and black carbon emerge as the major players. The dominant factor, however, is the large negative forcing (-20 ± 4 W m-2) at the surface and the comparably large atmospheric heating. Regionally, the absorbing haze decreased the surface solar radiation by an amount comparable to 50% of the total ocean heat flux and nearly doubled the lower tropospheric solar heating. We demonstrate with a general circulation model how this additional heating significantly perturbs the tropical rainfall patterns and the hydrological cycle with implications to global climate.

AB - Every year, from December to April, anthropogenic haze spreads over most of the North Indian Ocean, and South and Southeast Asia. The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) documented this Indo-Asian haze at scales ranging from individual particles to its contribution to the regional climate forcing. This study integrates the multiplatform observations (satellites, aircraft, ships, surface stations, and balloons) with one- and four-dimensional models to derive the regional aerosol forcing resulting from the direct, the semidirect and the two indirect effects. The haze particles consisted of several inorganic and carbonaceous species, including absorbing black carbon clusters, fly ash, and mineral dust. The most striking result was the large loading of aerosols over most of the South Asian region and the North Indian Ocean. The January to March 1999 visible optical depths were about 0.5 over most of the continent and reached values as large as 0.2 over the equatorial Indian ocean due to long-range transport. The aerosol layer extended as high as 3 km. Black carbon contributed about 14% to the fine particle mass and 11% to the visible optical depth. The single-scattering albedo estimated by several independent methods was consistently around 0.9 both inland and over the open ocean. Anthropogenic sources contributed as much as 80% (±10%) to the aerosol loading and the optical depth. The in situ data, which clearly support the existence of the first indirect effect (increased aerosol concentration producing more cloud drops with smaller effective radii), are used to develop a composite indirect effect scheme. The Indo-Asian aerosols impact the radiative forcing through a complex set of heating (positive forcing) and cooling (negative forcing) processes. Clouds and black carbon emerge as the major players. The dominant factor, however, is the large negative forcing (-20 ± 4 W m-2) at the surface and the comparably large atmospheric heating. Regionally, the absorbing haze decreased the surface solar radiation by an amount comparable to 50% of the total ocean heat flux and nearly doubled the lower tropospheric solar heating. We demonstrate with a general circulation model how this additional heating significantly perturbs the tropical rainfall patterns and the hydrological cycle with implications to global climate.

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