Influence of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum

Michael E Matheron, M. Porchas

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23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum in field soil was examined. In two trials at constant temperatures, the proportion of sclerotia of both pathogens that germinated in wet soil (≥-0.02 MPa) tended to decrease as soil temperature increased from 15 to 40°C, with no germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum detected after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively, at 40°C. In contrast, after 1 to 4 weeks in dry soil (≤-100 MPa) at 40°C, germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum ranged from 28 to 55% and 42 to 77%, respectively. In field trials, the germination rate of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum after 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil on the surface or buried at a depth of 5 cm was significantly lower than that for sclerotia maintained in dry soil at the same depths. On the other hand, after burial at a depth of 10 cm, germination of sclerotia in irrigated and dry soil did not differ significantly after 2 to 8 weeks for S. minor and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks for S. sclerotiorum. For both pathogens, germination of sclerotia from 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 32°C was significantly lower than that for sclerotia in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 26°C. In microplot trials conducted in July and August, no sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum germinated after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, after recovery from flooded soil with mean soil temperatures ranging from 30 to 33°C. A flood irrigation is often applied to fields for salt management during July or August in the Yuma lettuce production region. Results from these studies suggest that maintaining this flooding event for 2 to 3 weeks in fields with a history of lettuce drop caused by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum could significantly reduce the population of viable sclerotia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)50-54
Number of pages5
JournalPlant Disease
Volume89
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005

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Sclerotinia minor
sclerotia
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
soil temperature
soil water
viability
germination
irrigated soils
soil
flood irrigation
lettuce
temperature
pathogens
field experimentation

Keywords

  • Sclerotia survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

Cite this

@article{d2224291a6c74f61b7a71667d64157b5,
title = "Influence of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum",
abstract = "The effect of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum in field soil was examined. In two trials at constant temperatures, the proportion of sclerotia of both pathogens that germinated in wet soil (≥-0.02 MPa) tended to decrease as soil temperature increased from 15 to 40°C, with no germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum detected after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively, at 40°C. In contrast, after 1 to 4 weeks in dry soil (≤-100 MPa) at 40°C, germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum ranged from 28 to 55{\%} and 42 to 77{\%}, respectively. In field trials, the germination rate of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum after 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil on the surface or buried at a depth of 5 cm was significantly lower than that for sclerotia maintained in dry soil at the same depths. On the other hand, after burial at a depth of 10 cm, germination of sclerotia in irrigated and dry soil did not differ significantly after 2 to 8 weeks for S. minor and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks for S. sclerotiorum. For both pathogens, germination of sclerotia from 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 32°C was significantly lower than that for sclerotia in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 26°C. In microplot trials conducted in July and August, no sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum germinated after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, after recovery from flooded soil with mean soil temperatures ranging from 30 to 33°C. A flood irrigation is often applied to fields for salt management during July or August in the Yuma lettuce production region. Results from these studies suggest that maintaining this flooding event for 2 to 3 weeks in fields with a history of lettuce drop caused by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum could significantly reduce the population of viable sclerotia.",
keywords = "Sclerotia survival",
author = "Matheron, {Michael E} and M. Porchas",
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N2 - The effect of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum in field soil was examined. In two trials at constant temperatures, the proportion of sclerotia of both pathogens that germinated in wet soil (≥-0.02 MPa) tended to decrease as soil temperature increased from 15 to 40°C, with no germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum detected after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively, at 40°C. In contrast, after 1 to 4 weeks in dry soil (≤-100 MPa) at 40°C, germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum ranged from 28 to 55% and 42 to 77%, respectively. In field trials, the germination rate of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum after 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil on the surface or buried at a depth of 5 cm was significantly lower than that for sclerotia maintained in dry soil at the same depths. On the other hand, after burial at a depth of 10 cm, germination of sclerotia in irrigated and dry soil did not differ significantly after 2 to 8 weeks for S. minor and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks for S. sclerotiorum. For both pathogens, germination of sclerotia from 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 32°C was significantly lower than that for sclerotia in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 26°C. In microplot trials conducted in July and August, no sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum germinated after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, after recovery from flooded soil with mean soil temperatures ranging from 30 to 33°C. A flood irrigation is often applied to fields for salt management during July or August in the Yuma lettuce production region. Results from these studies suggest that maintaining this flooding event for 2 to 3 weeks in fields with a history of lettuce drop caused by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum could significantly reduce the population of viable sclerotia.

AB - The effect of soil temperature and moisture on eruptive germination and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum in field soil was examined. In two trials at constant temperatures, the proportion of sclerotia of both pathogens that germinated in wet soil (≥-0.02 MPa) tended to decrease as soil temperature increased from 15 to 40°C, with no germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum detected after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively, at 40°C. In contrast, after 1 to 4 weeks in dry soil (≤-100 MPa) at 40°C, germination of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum ranged from 28 to 55% and 42 to 77%, respectively. In field trials, the germination rate of sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum after 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil on the surface or buried at a depth of 5 cm was significantly lower than that for sclerotia maintained in dry soil at the same depths. On the other hand, after burial at a depth of 10 cm, germination of sclerotia in irrigated and dry soil did not differ significantly after 2 to 8 weeks for S. minor and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks for S. sclerotiorum. For both pathogens, germination of sclerotia from 2 to 8 weeks in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 32°C was significantly lower than that for sclerotia in irrigated soil with a mean temperature of 26°C. In microplot trials conducted in July and August, no sclerotia of S. minor and S. sclerotiorum germinated after 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, after recovery from flooded soil with mean soil temperatures ranging from 30 to 33°C. A flood irrigation is often applied to fields for salt management during July or August in the Yuma lettuce production region. Results from these studies suggest that maintaining this flooding event for 2 to 3 weeks in fields with a history of lettuce drop caused by S. minor and S. sclerotiorum could significantly reduce the population of viable sclerotia.

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