The influence of the intercalate species on the quasi-static electrochromic behavior of tungsten-oxide-based devices is investigated. Two different electrolytes are used in the devices: an aqueous sulfuric acid solution, from which it is assumed that intercalation of hydrogen occurs; and a solution of lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate, from which it is assumed that intercalation of lithium occurs. Experiments are performed in which a step-current of small magnitude is imposed through the device, and the corresponding time-dependence of the electrical potential and optical transmission are measured simultaneously. The behavior of the optical efficiency is relatively insensitive to the nature of the intercalate species, but the device potential is appreciably more sensitive to lithium intercalation than to hydrogen intercalation. The disparity in electrical behavior is likely due to increased strain effects and/or a diminished availability of sites associated with the larger lithium intercalate. It is shown that the electrical and optical behavior of the two types of devices may be related by a single linear scaling relation, indicating that the fundamental processes involved in the operation of the devices are similar.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films