Inhibition of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria by addition of high and low concentrations of chloramphenicol and comparison of attached- and suspended-growth

Supaporn Phanwilai, Suratchana Piyavorasakul, Pongsak (Lek) Noophan, Kevin D. Daniels, Shane A Snyder

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Inhibition of anammox activities was tested with two ranges of chloramphenicol (CAP) concentration (5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg L−1) and (100, 500, and 1000 μg L−1). In a short-term study, strong inhibition of activity was dependent of CAP concentration in both attached-growth (SBR-A) and suspended-growth (SBR-S) systems. The activities of attached-growth cultures at all CAP concentrations were reversible after 1 day, while activities for suspended-growth cultures were only gradually reversible dependent on the CAP concentrations. In long-term studies with daily additions of 6 mg L−1 CAP, the anammox activity on day 41 in SBR-A had decreased to 18% baseline (SAA reduced from 0.528 to 0.096 mg N mg−1 VSS d−1). More rapid reduction of anammox activity was observed in SBR-S, down to 17% baseline after only 27 days (SAA decreased from 0.576 to 0.096 mg N mg−1 VSS d−1). Inhibition was irreversible in both SBR-S and SBR-A after the long-term study. With lower CAP additions (100–1000 μg L−1), the activities in both reactors were stable during daily CAP addition for two weeks. Attached-growth cultures tended to be more tolerant of CAP addition than suspended-growth cultures. Both un-competitive and non-competitive models could be used to compare anammox activities with the higher CAP concentrations. The SAAmax [fx] (the maximum specific anammox activity) and h Ki (the inhibition constant) of SBR-A were 0.48 mg N mg−1 VSS d−1 and 98.3 mg L−1, respectively. The SAAmax[fx] and Ki of SBR-S were 1.25 mg N mg−1 VSS d−1and 71.1 mg L−1, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number124570
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020



  • (CAP)
  • (SAA)
  • Anaerobic ammonium oxidation, (anammox)
  • Attached-growth
  • Chloramphenicolm
  • Specific anammox activity
  • Suspended-growth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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