Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-mediated signal transduction and tumor growth by N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl] 5- methylisoxazole-4-carboxamide

Laura K. Shawver, Donna P. Schwartz, Elaina Mann, Hui Chen, Jianming Tsai, Lillian Chu, Lesley Taylorson, Michael Longhi, Shelly Meredith, Linda Germain, Jolanta S. Jacobs, Cho Tang, Axel Ullrich, Michael E. Berens, Evan Hersh, Gerald McMahon, K. Peter Hirth, T. J. Powell

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129 Scopus citations

Abstract

Many reports have cited coexpression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors by tumor cells or cells supporting tumor growth, suggesting both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms for PDGF-mediated tumor growth. We found that a small organic molecule, N-[4(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] 5-methylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (SU101, leflunomide), inhibited PDGF-mediated signaling events, including receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. SU101 inhibited PDGF- stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR) β in C6 (rat glioma) and NIH3T3 cells engineered to overexpress human PDGFRβ (3T3- PDGFRβ). SU101 blocked both PDGF-and epidermal growth factor (EGF)- stimulated DNA synthesis. Previously, this compound was shown to inhibit pyrimidine biosynthesis by interfering with the enzymatic activity of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. In the current study, EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis was restored by the addition of saturating quantities of uridine, whereas PDGF-induced DNA synthesis was not, suggesting that the compound demonstrated some selectivity for the PDGFR pathway that was independent of pyrimidine biosynthesis. Selectivity was further demonstrated by the ability of the compound to block the entry of PDGF-stimulated cells into the S phase of the cell cycle, without affecting cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells. In cell growth assays, SU101 selectively inhibited the growth of PDGFRβ-expressing cell lines more efficiently than it inhibited the growth of PDGFRβ-negative cell lines. SU101 inhibited the s.c., i.p., and intracerebral growth of a panel of cell lines including cells from glioma, ovarian, and prostate origin. In contrast, SU101 failed to inhibit the in vitro or s.c. growth of A431 and KB tumor cells, both of which express EGF receptor but not PDGFRβ. SU101 also inhibited the growth of D1B and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells in syngeneic immunocompetent mice, without causing adverse effects on the immune response of the animals. In an i.p. model of tumor growth in syngeneic immunocompetent mice, SU101 prevented tumor growth and induced long-term survivors in animals implanted with 7TD1 (murine B- cell hybridoma) tumor cells. Because PDGFRβ was detected on most of the tumor cell lines in which in vivo growth was inhibited by SU101, these data suggest that SUI01 is an effective inhibitor of PDGF-driven tumor growth in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1167-1177
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume3
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Shawver, L. K., Schwartz, D. P., Mann, E., Chen, H., Tsai, J., Chu, L., Taylorson, L., Longhi, M., Meredith, S., Germain, L., Jacobs, J. S., Tang, C., Ullrich, A., Berens, M. E., Hersh, E., McMahon, G., Hirth, K. P., & Powell, T. J. (1997). Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-mediated signal transduction and tumor growth by N-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl] 5- methylisoxazole-4-carboxamide. Clinical Cancer Research, 3(7), 1167-1177.