Inhibitors of the M2 Proton Channel Engage and Disrupt Transmembrane Networks of Hydrogen-Bonded Waters

Jessica L. Thomaston, Nicholas F. Polizzi, Athina Konstantinidi, Jun Wang, Antonios Kolocouris, William F. Degrado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Water-mediated interactions play key roles in drug binding. In protein sites with sparse polar functionality, a small-molecule approach is often viewed as insufficient to achieve high affinity and specificity. Here we show that small molecules can enable potent inhibition by targeting key waters. The M2 proton channel of influenza A is the target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine. Structural studies of drug binding to the channel using X-ray crystallography have been limited because of the challenging nature of the target, with the one previously solved crystal structure limited to 3.5 Å resolution. Here we describe crystal structures of amantadine bound to M2 in the Inwardclosed conformation (2.00 Å), rimantadine bound to M2 in both the Inwardclosed (2.00 Å) and Inwardopen (2.25 Å) conformations, and a spiro-adamantyl amine inhibitor bound to M2 in the Inwardclosed conformation (2.63 Å). These X-ray crystal structures of the M2 proton channel with bound inhibitors reveal that ammonium groups bind to water-lined sites that are hypothesized to stabilize transient hydronium ions formed in the proton-conduction mechanism. Furthermore, the ammonium and adamantyl groups of the adamantyl-amine class of drugs are free to rotate in the channel, minimizing the entropic cost of binding. These drug-bound complexes provide the first high-resolution structures of drugs that interact with and disrupt networks of hydrogen-bonded waters that are widely utilized throughout nature to facilitate proton diffusion within proteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15219-15226
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume140
Issue number45
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 14 2018

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Protons
Hydrogen
Conformations
Rimantadine
Water
Crystal structure
Amantadine
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Amines
Ammonium Compounds
Proteins
Molecules
X ray crystallography
X Ray Crystallography
Human Influenza
Antiviral Agents
X rays
X-Rays
Ions
Costs and Cost Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

Cite this

Inhibitors of the M2 Proton Channel Engage and Disrupt Transmembrane Networks of Hydrogen-Bonded Waters. / Thomaston, Jessica L.; Polizzi, Nicholas F.; Konstantinidi, Athina; Wang, Jun; Kolocouris, Antonios; Degrado, William F.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 140, No. 45, 14.11.2018, p. 15219-15226.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Thomaston, Jessica L. ; Polizzi, Nicholas F. ; Konstantinidi, Athina ; Wang, Jun ; Kolocouris, Antonios ; Degrado, William F. / Inhibitors of the M2 Proton Channel Engage and Disrupt Transmembrane Networks of Hydrogen-Bonded Waters. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2018 ; Vol. 140, No. 45. pp. 15219-15226.
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