Insensitive Munitions Formulations: Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils

Susan Taylor, Katerina M Dontsova, Marianne Walsh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

New explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested as replacements for TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Two of these explosives, DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), have good detonation characteristics and are the main ingredients in a suite of insensitive munitions (IM) explosives. Both compounds, however, are more soluble than either TNT or RDX. Data on their fate could help determine if DNAN and NTO have the potential to reach groundwater and be transported off base, an outcome that could create future contamination problems on military training ranges and trigger regulatory action. In this chapter, we describe how quickly IM constituents (DNAN, NTO, nitroguanidine, RDX and ammonium perchlorate) dissolve from three IM formulations (IMX-101, IMX-104 and PAX-21) and how solutions of IM compounds interact with different types of soils. This information, coupled with the mass of IM formulations scattered on a range, will allow estimates of the dissolved IM mass loads, their subsequent transport and fate, and their likelihood of reaching groundwater.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationChallenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics
PublisherSpringer
Pages407-443
Number of pages37
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Publication series

NameChallenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics
Volume25
ISSN (Print)2542-4491
ISSN (Electronic)2542-4483

Fingerprint

RDX
soils
dissolving
Dissolution
trinitrotoluene
Trinitrotoluene
ground water
perchlorates
Soils
formulations
Groundwater
nitroguanidine
ammonium perchlorates
Detonation
detonation
ingredients
contamination
Contamination
education
actuators

Keywords

  • Dissolution
  • High explosives
  • Soil interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Taylor, S., Dontsova, K. M., & Walsh, M. (2017). Insensitive Munitions Formulations: Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils. In Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics (pp. 407-443). (Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics; Vol. 25). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12

Insensitive Munitions Formulations : Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils. / Taylor, Susan; Dontsova, Katerina M; Walsh, Marianne.

Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics. Springer, 2017. p. 407-443 (Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics; Vol. 25).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Taylor, S, Dontsova, KM & Walsh, M 2017, Insensitive Munitions Formulations: Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils. in Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics. Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics, vol. 25, Springer, pp. 407-443. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12
Taylor S, Dontsova KM, Walsh M. Insensitive Munitions Formulations: Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils. In Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics. Springer. 2017. p. 407-443. (Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12
Taylor, Susan ; Dontsova, Katerina M ; Walsh, Marianne. / Insensitive Munitions Formulations : Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils. Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics. Springer, 2017. pp. 407-443 (Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics).
@inbook{bfd2ead9827247db962ea6fa0cb85389,
title = "Insensitive Munitions Formulations: Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils",
abstract = "New explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested as replacements for TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Two of these explosives, DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), have good detonation characteristics and are the main ingredients in a suite of insensitive munitions (IM) explosives. Both compounds, however, are more soluble than either TNT or RDX. Data on their fate could help determine if DNAN and NTO have the potential to reach groundwater and be transported off base, an outcome that could create future contamination problems on military training ranges and trigger regulatory action. In this chapter, we describe how quickly IM constituents (DNAN, NTO, nitroguanidine, RDX and ammonium perchlorate) dissolve from three IM formulations (IMX-101, IMX-104 and PAX-21) and how solutions of IM compounds interact with different types of soils. This information, coupled with the mass of IM formulations scattered on a range, will allow estimates of the dissolved IM mass loads, their subsequent transport and fate, and their likelihood of reaching groundwater.",
keywords = "Dissolution, High explosives, Soil interactions",
author = "Susan Taylor and Dontsova, {Katerina M} and Marianne Walsh",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12",
language = "English (US)",
series = "Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics",
publisher = "Springer",
pages = "407--443",
booktitle = "Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Insensitive Munitions Formulations

T2 - Their Dissolution and Fate in Soils

AU - Taylor, Susan

AU - Dontsova, Katerina M

AU - Walsh, Marianne

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - New explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested as replacements for TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Two of these explosives, DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), have good detonation characteristics and are the main ingredients in a suite of insensitive munitions (IM) explosives. Both compounds, however, are more soluble than either TNT or RDX. Data on their fate could help determine if DNAN and NTO have the potential to reach groundwater and be transported off base, an outcome that could create future contamination problems on military training ranges and trigger regulatory action. In this chapter, we describe how quickly IM constituents (DNAN, NTO, nitroguanidine, RDX and ammonium perchlorate) dissolve from three IM formulations (IMX-101, IMX-104 and PAX-21) and how solutions of IM compounds interact with different types of soils. This information, coupled with the mass of IM formulations scattered on a range, will allow estimates of the dissolved IM mass loads, their subsequent transport and fate, and their likelihood of reaching groundwater.

AB - New explosive compounds that are less sensitive to shock and high temperatures are being tested as replacements for TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) and RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine). Two of these explosives, DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole) and NTO (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one), have good detonation characteristics and are the main ingredients in a suite of insensitive munitions (IM) explosives. Both compounds, however, are more soluble than either TNT or RDX. Data on their fate could help determine if DNAN and NTO have the potential to reach groundwater and be transported off base, an outcome that could create future contamination problems on military training ranges and trigger regulatory action. In this chapter, we describe how quickly IM constituents (DNAN, NTO, nitroguanidine, RDX and ammonium perchlorate) dissolve from three IM formulations (IMX-101, IMX-104 and PAX-21) and how solutions of IM compounds interact with different types of soils. This information, coupled with the mass of IM formulations scattered on a range, will allow estimates of the dissolved IM mass loads, their subsequent transport and fate, and their likelihood of reaching groundwater.

KW - Dissolution

KW - High explosives

KW - Soil interactions

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064921257&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85064921257&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12

DO - 10.1007/978-3-319-59208-4_12

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:85064921257

T3 - Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics

SP - 407

EP - 443

BT - Challenges and Advances in Computational Chemistry and Physics

PB - Springer

ER -