Insights into the dissolution and the three-dimensional structure of insensitive munitions formulations

Susan Taylor, David B. Ringelberg, Katerina M Dontsova, Charles P. Daghlian, Marianne E. Walsh, Michael R. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) are the main ingredients in a suite of explosive formulations that are being, or soon will be, fielded at military training ranges. We aim to understand the dissolution characteristics of DNAN and NTO and three insensitive muntions (IM) formulations that contain them. This information is needed to accurately predict the environmental fate of IM constituents, some of which may be toxic to people and the environment. We used Raman spectroscopy to identify the different constituents in the IM formulations and micro computed tomography to image their three-dimensional structure. These are the first three-dimensional images of detonated explosive particles. For multi-component explosives the solubility of the individual constituents and the fraction of each constituent wetted by water controls the dissolution. We found that the order of magnitude differences in solubility amongst the constituents of these IM formulations quickly produced hole-riddled particles when these were exposed to water. Micro-computed tomography showed that particles resulting from field detonations were fractured, producing conduits by which water could access the interior of the particle. We think that micro-computed tomography can also be used to determine the initial composition of IM particles and to track how their compositions change as the particles dissolve. This information is critical to quantifying dissolution and developing physically based dissolution models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1782-1788
Number of pages7
JournalChemosphere
Volume93
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

Fingerprint

Dissolution
Three-Dimensional Imaging
dissolution
Tomography
Solubility
Water
tomography
explosive
Raman Spectrum Analysis
Poisons
solubility
Detonation
Chemical analysis
Raman spectroscopy
environmental fate
water
particle
2,4-dinitroanisole
3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one

Keywords

  • Dissolution
  • DNAN
  • Insensitive munitions
  • Micro-computed tomography
  • NTO
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Insights into the dissolution and the three-dimensional structure of insensitive munitions formulations. / Taylor, Susan; Ringelberg, David B.; Dontsova, Katerina M; Daghlian, Charles P.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Walsh, Michael R.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 93, No. 9, 11.2013, p. 1782-1788.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Taylor, Susan ; Ringelberg, David B. ; Dontsova, Katerina M ; Daghlian, Charles P. ; Walsh, Marianne E. ; Walsh, Michael R. / Insights into the dissolution and the three-dimensional structure of insensitive munitions formulations. In: Chemosphere. 2013 ; Vol. 93, No. 9. pp. 1782-1788.
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