The deflectometry enables high-precision wavefront measurement with large dynamic range. Traditional multi-step phase-shifting fringe-illumination deflectometric methods involve at least three sinusoidal phase-shifting fringe patterns and require a sequential projection, making it not feasible for the instantaneous measurement. In this paper, a colorcoded method with frequency-carrier patterns is proposed to achieve the instantaneous wavefront measurement based on deflectometry. With the color extraction from different channels, composite patterns in x and y directions can be well separated with a single shot. Then, the phase-shifting patterns encoded in different frequencies can be demodulated with the designed filters, by which the local wavefront slopes can be obtained simultaneously to reconstruct the wavefront under test. Both the numerical simulation and experiments are performed to validate the feasibility of proposed method. The proposed method provides a feasible way for the real-time and instantaneous measurement with large dynamic range based on deflectometry.