Instructional Level and Engagement in Students With Behavioral Disorders

Chelsea E. Carr, John Umbreit, Rebecca Hartzell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examined the effects of adjusting the difficulty level of instructional materials on the time on-task and comprehension of four students with emotional and behavioral disorders. All participants previously exhibited low rates of on-task behavior during reading assignments. Students were presented with reading materials at their instructional, frustration, and independent levels to assess the effect on time on-task and comprehension. All four students demonstrated the highest percent of on-task behavior when presented with reading materials at their instructional level. Comprehension scores were highest for all four students at the independent level and lowest at the frustration level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalBehavioral Disorders
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • emotional and behavioral disorders
  • engagement
  • frustration level
  • independent level
  • instructional level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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