Intake fraction distributions for benzene from vehicles in the Helsinki metropolitan area

Miranda M. Loh, Joana Soares, Ari Karppinen, Jaakko Kukkonen, Leena Kangas, Kari Riikonen, Anu Kousa, Arja Asikainen, Matti J. Jantunen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The intake fraction (iF) gives a measure of the portion of a source's emissions that is inhaled by an exposed population over a defined period of time. This study examines spatial and population-based iF distributions of a known human carcinogen, benzene, from a ubiquitous urban source, local vehicular traffic, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area using three computational methods. The first method uses the EXPAND model (EXPosure to Air pollution, especially to Nitrogen Dioxide and particulate matter), which incorporates spatial and temporal information on population activity patterns as well as urban-scale and street canyon dispersion models to predict spatial population exposure distributions. The second method uses data from the personal monitoring study EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions of Adult Urban Populations in Europe) to estimate the intake fractions for individuals in the study. The third method, a one-compartment box model provides estimates within an order-of-magnitude or better for non-reactive agents in an urban area. Population intake fractions are higher using the personal monitoring data method (median iF 30 per million, mean iF 39 per million) compared with the spatial model (annual mean iF 10 per million) and the box model (median iF 4 per million, mean iF 7 per million). In particular, this study presents detailed intake fraction distributions on several different levels (spatial, individual, and generic) for the same urban area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-310
Number of pages10
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Air pollution
  • Benzene
  • Exposure
  • Intake fraction
  • Traffic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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