Intake restriction strategies and sources of energy and protein during the growing period affect nutrient disappearance, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of crossbred heifers

A. E. Wertz, L. L. Berger, Dan B Faulkner, T. G. Nash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70% of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P ≤ 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P ≤ 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P ≤ 0.01) and less efficiently (P ≤ 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80% of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1598-1610
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume79
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

corn gluten
feedlots
carcass characteristics
Zea mays
heifers
crossbreds
Food
Glutens
energy
nutrients
corn
Proteins
proteins
corn silage
hay
feed conversion
protein supplements
Silage
carcass weight
protein sources

Keywords

  • Cattle
  • Gluten
  • Maize
  • Plane of nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

@article{2d625505163f4d399f7de5e1ba350640,
title = "Intake restriction strategies and sources of energy and protein during the growing period affect nutrient disappearance, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of crossbred heifers",
abstract = "Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70{\%} of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P ≤ 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P ≤ 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P ≤ 0.01) and less efficiently (P ≤ 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80{\%} of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80{\%} of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate.",
keywords = "Cattle, Gluten, Maize, Plane of nutrition",
author = "Wertz, {A. E.} and Berger, {L. L.} and Faulkner, {Dan B} and Nash, {T. G.}",
year = "2001",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "79",
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journal = "Journal of Animal Science",
issn = "0021-8812",
publisher = "American Society of Animal Science",
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T1 - Intake restriction strategies and sources of energy and protein during the growing period affect nutrient disappearance, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of crossbred heifers

AU - Wertz, A. E.

AU - Berger, L. L.

AU - Faulkner, Dan B

AU - Nash, T. G.

PY - 2001/6

Y1 - 2001/6

N2 - Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70% of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P ≤ 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P ≤ 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P ≤ 0.01) and less efficiently (P ≤ 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80% of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate.

AB - Two trials were conducted to evaluate intake restriction, energy, and protein source on the performance and carcass merit of heifers limit-fed corn gluten feed. Trial 1 crossbred heifers (n = 140) were allotted to ad libitum wet corn gluten feed (WCGF)-hay, ad libitum WCGF-corn, WCGF-corn continuously limit-fed to achieve a gain of 1.1 kg/d or WCGF-corn fed in the following sequence: 70% of ad libitum for 20 d, ad libitum for 20 d, and 2 d common intake during the 84-d growing period. One-half of these restricted-refed heifers received a rumen-undegraded protein supplement, and the other half received a rumen degraded protein supplement. Heifers were fed a common finishing diet ad libitum subsequent to the growing period. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay and WCGF-corn were slaughtered at a common compositional fat end point. Heifers limit-fed WCGF-corn were slaughtered at the same time as heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-corn, regardless of subcutaneous fat cover. Limit-feeding WCGF-corn diets to growing heifers reduced ADG (P ≤ 0.01) but did not compromise feed efficiency. Method of intake restriction, continuous or ad libitum-interrupted, and supplemental protein source did not affect combined growing-finishing performance. However, when fed for a common length of time, the average of the limit-fed heifers had lighter carcass weights (P ≤ 0.01) and lower (P = 0.04) marbling scores. Heifers offered ad libitum WCGF-hay gained slower (P ≤ 0.01) and less efficiently (P ≤ 0.01) than heifers offered WCGF-corn. Trial 2 crossbred heifers (n = 222) were allotted to dry corn gluten feed (DCGF)-corn ad libitum or restricted to 80% of ad libitum for 42, 84, or 126 d; or ad libitum corn silage or DCGF-corn silage at 80% of ad libitum for 84 d. Feed efficiency (P = 0.07) and ADG (P = 0.08) tended to behave quadratically, being poorer for heifers limit-fed for 126 d during the growing period. Heifers limit-fed DCGF-corn gained more efficiently (P = 0.05) than heifers grown on ad libitum corn silage. Limit-feeding CGF-corn to growing beef heifers can be used to achieve moderate rates of gain without compromising feed efficiency. However, limit-feeding during the growing period may result in lighter weight carcasses with lower quality grades if not fed to the same fat end point as heifers grown with free access to concentrate.

KW - Cattle

KW - Gluten

KW - Maize

KW - Plane of nutrition

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M3 - Article

VL - 79

SP - 1598

EP - 1610

JO - Journal of Animal Science

JF - Journal of Animal Science

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