Integrated rural development (IRD) projects represented a significant proportion of international donor funded programs in low income countries during the 1970s. This paper briefly reviews the IRD literature and evaluates the Nicaraguan IRD program funded by the Agency for International Development. Important lessons learned from this IRD case study include the necessity of applying modern management techniques in development programs, the vital need for appropriate technologies, the organizational difficulties of institutional coordination and the precarious position of requiring social and economic reforms during project implementation. The author concludes that IRD programs often are inappropriate for low income countries. Scarce developmental resources would be more productive if they were concentrated on one or two key developmental constraints.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)