Interpretation of external fields as temperature

Berndt Müller, Walter Greiner, Johann Rafelski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Scopus citations


We show that average excitation of the vacuum state in the presence of an external electric field can be described by an effective temperature kT = eE (2πm). We present a qualitative generalization of our result to other interactions. Some phenomenological implications concerning matter at low temperatures in strong electric fields (105 V/cm) are offered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-183
Number of pages3
JournalPhysics Letters A
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 14 1977
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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