Intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to intravenous and endovascular intraarterial revascularization therapies in acute ischemic stroke: An update on risk factors, predictors, and management

Maxim Mokin, Peter Kan, Tareq Kass-Hout, Adib A. Abla, Travis M Dumont, Kenneth V. Snyder, L. Nelson Hopkins, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Elad I. Levy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Scopus citations


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) secondary to intravenous and intraarterial revascularization strategies for emergent treatment of acute ischemic stroke is associated with high mortality. ICH from systemic thrombolysis typically occurs within the first 24-36 hours of treatment initiation and is characterized by rapid hematoma development and growth. Pathophysiological mechanisms of revascularization therapy-induced ICH are complex and involve a combination of several distinct processes, including the direct effect of thrombolytic agents, disruption of the bloodbrain barrier secondary to ischemia, and direct vessel damage from wire and microcatheter manipulations during endovascular procedures. Several definitions of ICH secondary to thrombolysis currently exist, depending on clinica lor radiological characteristics used. Multiple studies have investigated clinical and laboratory risk factors associated with higher rates of ICH in this setting. Early ischemic changes seen on noncontrast CT scanning are strongly associated with higher rates of hemorrhage. Modern imaging techniques, particularly CT perfusion, provide rapid assessment of hemodynamic parameters of the brain. Specific patterns of CT perfusion maps can help identify patients who are likely to benefit from revascularization or to develop hemorrhagic complications. There are no established guidelines that describe management of revascularization therapy-induced ICH, and great variability in treatment protocols currently exist. General principles that apply to the management of spontaneous ICH might not be as effecti ve for revascularization therapy-induced ICH. In this article, the authors review current knowledge of risk factors and radiological predictors of ICH secondary to stroke revascularization techniques and analyze medical and surgical management strategies for ICH in this setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberE2
JournalNeurosurgical Focus
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes



  • Acute ischemic stroke
  • Blood pressure
  • Computed tomography
  • Endovascular intervention
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Intravenous thrombolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this