Anemia is a global health issue with disproportionately high prevalence in women. In addition to being an independent risk factor for decreased quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality, anemia in women has been linked to unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy and other issues for children born to anemic women. Iron deficiency is the leading cause of anemia in many populations. Guidelines recommend proactive screening for anemia, particularly in the preoperative setting. Once anemia is diagnosed, treatment should be based on etiology (most commonly, iron deficiency followed, in order of prevalence, by inflammation or chronic disease). Iron supplementation (oral and intravenous) offers safe and effective treatment for anemia associated with iron deficiency. Anemia of chronic disease may be more challenging to treat, and attention must be given to the underlying disease, along with use of hematinic agents. Given its enormous impact on the health and well-being of women and the availability of simple and effective treatment options, anemia should never be left unmanaged.
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