Is depression an inflammatory disorder?

Charles L Raison, Andrew H. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

267 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Studies consistently report that groups of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased levels of a variety of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers when compared with groups of nondepressed individuals. These findings are often interpreted as meaning that MDD, even in medically healthy individuals, may be an inflammatory condition. In this article, we examine evidence for and against this idea by looking more closely into what the actual patterns of inflammatory findings indicate in terms of the relationship between MDD and the immune system. Data are presented in support of the idea that inflammation only contributes to depression in a subset of patients versus the possibility that the depressogenic effect of inflammatory activation is more widespread and varies depending on the degree of vulnerability any given individual evinces in interconnected physiologic systems known to be implicated in the etiology of MDD. Finally, the treatment implications of these various possibilities are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-475
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Psychiatry Reports
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Major Depressive Disorder
Depression
Immune System
Biomarkers
Inflammation
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Cytokines
  • Fatigue
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Immune
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-6
  • Kynurenine
  • Major depression
  • P38 mitogen-activated kinase
  • Psychosocial stress
  • Quinolinic acid
  • Tryptophan
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Is depression an inflammatory disorder? / Raison, Charles L; Miller, Andrew H.

In: Current Psychiatry Reports, Vol. 13, No. 6, 12.2011, p. 467-475.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Raison, Charles L ; Miller, Andrew H. / Is depression an inflammatory disorder?. In: Current Psychiatry Reports. 2011 ; Vol. 13, No. 6. pp. 467-475.
@article{041639f2a31e4c7795607c475704e884,
title = "Is depression an inflammatory disorder?",
abstract = "Studies consistently report that groups of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased levels of a variety of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers when compared with groups of nondepressed individuals. These findings are often interpreted as meaning that MDD, even in medically healthy individuals, may be an inflammatory condition. In this article, we examine evidence for and against this idea by looking more closely into what the actual patterns of inflammatory findings indicate in terms of the relationship between MDD and the immune system. Data are presented in support of the idea that inflammation only contributes to depression in a subset of patients versus the possibility that the depressogenic effect of inflammatory activation is more widespread and varies depending on the degree of vulnerability any given individual evinces in interconnected physiologic systems known to be implicated in the etiology of MDD. Finally, the treatment implications of these various possibilities are discussed.",
keywords = "Autonomic nervous system, Cytokines, Fatigue, Glucocorticoids, Immune, Inflammation, Interleukin-6, Kynurenine, Major depression, P38 mitogen-activated kinase, Psychosocial stress, Quinolinic acid, Tryptophan, Tumor necrosis factor-α",
author = "Raison, {Charles L} and Miller, {Andrew H.}",
year = "2011",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1007/s11920-011-0232-0",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "13",
pages = "467--475",
journal = "Current Psychiatry Reports",
issn = "1523-3812",
publisher = "Current Science, Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Is depression an inflammatory disorder?

AU - Raison, Charles L

AU - Miller, Andrew H.

PY - 2011/12

Y1 - 2011/12

N2 - Studies consistently report that groups of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased levels of a variety of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers when compared with groups of nondepressed individuals. These findings are often interpreted as meaning that MDD, even in medically healthy individuals, may be an inflammatory condition. In this article, we examine evidence for and against this idea by looking more closely into what the actual patterns of inflammatory findings indicate in terms of the relationship between MDD and the immune system. Data are presented in support of the idea that inflammation only contributes to depression in a subset of patients versus the possibility that the depressogenic effect of inflammatory activation is more widespread and varies depending on the degree of vulnerability any given individual evinces in interconnected physiologic systems known to be implicated in the etiology of MDD. Finally, the treatment implications of these various possibilities are discussed.

AB - Studies consistently report that groups of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate increased levels of a variety of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers when compared with groups of nondepressed individuals. These findings are often interpreted as meaning that MDD, even in medically healthy individuals, may be an inflammatory condition. In this article, we examine evidence for and against this idea by looking more closely into what the actual patterns of inflammatory findings indicate in terms of the relationship between MDD and the immune system. Data are presented in support of the idea that inflammation only contributes to depression in a subset of patients versus the possibility that the depressogenic effect of inflammatory activation is more widespread and varies depending on the degree of vulnerability any given individual evinces in interconnected physiologic systems known to be implicated in the etiology of MDD. Finally, the treatment implications of these various possibilities are discussed.

KW - Autonomic nervous system

KW - Cytokines

KW - Fatigue

KW - Glucocorticoids

KW - Immune

KW - Inflammation

KW - Interleukin-6

KW - Kynurenine

KW - Major depression

KW - P38 mitogen-activated kinase

KW - Psychosocial stress

KW - Quinolinic acid

KW - Tryptophan

KW - Tumor necrosis factor-α

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84855908314&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84855908314&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11920-011-0232-0

DO - 10.1007/s11920-011-0232-0

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 467

EP - 475

JO - Current Psychiatry Reports

JF - Current Psychiatry Reports

SN - 1523-3812

IS - 6

ER -