Background: Benefits of surgical resection for early-stage nonepithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have not been clearly elucidated. This study investigated whether cancer-directed surgery affects overall survival compared with nonsurgical therapies for T1-T2 N0 M0 sarcomatoid or biphasic MPM patients. Methods: Adult patients with clinical stage I or II MPM were identified in the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2103. Patients who underwent cancer-directed surgery were matched by propensity score with patients who had received chemotherapy/radiotherapy or no treatments. Overall survival was compared using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: From National Cancer Database queries, 878 patients with clinical stage I or II MPM with sarcomatoid (n = 524) or biphasic (n = 354) histology were identified. Overall median survival was 5.5 months for patients with sarcomatoid mesothelioma. The cancer-directed surgery improved overall survival compared with no operation (median survival, 7.56 months vs 4.21 months, respectively; p < 0.01). In the biphasic group, median overall survival was 12.2 months. Again, the cancer-directed surgery improved survival compared with no operation (15.8 months vs 9.3 months, p < 0.01). For both histologies, the cancer-directed surgery improved overall survival compared with those who underwent chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, without resection (p < 0.05). Perioperative mortality was 6.0% at 30 days and 21.4% at 90 days. Conclusions: The cancer-directed surgery is associated with improved survival in early-stage MPM patients with nonepithelioid histology compared with those who did not undergo resection or chose medical therapy. Given the high perioperative mortality, a careful patient selection and multidisciplinary evaluation is recommended.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine