IWGDF guidance on the diagnosis, prognosis and management of peripheral artery disease in patients with foot ulcers in diabetes

on behalf of the InternationalWorking Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Scopus citations


Recommendations: Examine a patient with diabetes annually for the presence of peripheral artery disease (PAD); this should include, at a minimum, taking a history and palpating foot pulses. (GRADE strength of recommendation: strong; quality of evidence: low) Evaluate a patient with diabetes and a foot ulcer for the presence of PAD. Determine, as part of this examination, ankle or pedal Doppler arterial waveforms; measure both ankle systolic pressure and systolic ankle brachial index (ABI). (strong; low) We recommend the use of bedside non-invasive tests to exclude PAD. No single modality has been shown to be optimal. Measuring ABI (with 2) ≥25 mmHg. (strong; moderate) Consider urgent vascular imaging and revascularisation in patients with a foot ulcer in diabetes where the toe pressure is 2 2 ≥25 mmHg. (strong; low) A centre treating patients with a foot ulcer in diabetes should have the expertise in and rapid access to facilities necessary to diagnose and treat PAD; both endovascular techniques and bypass surgery should be available. (strong; low) There is inadequate evidence to establish which revascularisation technique is superior, and decisions should be made in a multidisciplinary team on a number of individual factors, such as morphological distribution of PAD, availability of autogenous vein, patient co-morbidities and local expertise. (strong; low) After a revascularisation procedure for a foot ulcer in diabetes, the patient should be treated by a multidisciplinary team as part of a comprehensive care plan. (strong; low) Patients with signs of PAD and a foot infection are at particularly high risk for major limb amputation and require emergency treatment. (strong; moderate) Avoid revascularisation in patients in whom, from the patient perspective, the risk-benefit ratio for the probability of success is unfavourable. (strong; low) All patients with diabetes and an ischaemic foot ulcer should receive aggressive cardiovascular risk management including support for cessation of smoking, treatment of hypertension and prescription of a statin as well as low-dose aspirin or clopidogrel. (strong; low)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-44
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine

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