A complete picture of Chagas disease requires an appreciation of the many species of kissing bugs and their role in transmitting this disease to humans and other mammals. This chapter provides an overview of the taxonomy of the major species of kissing bugs and their evolution. Knowledge of systematics and biological kinship of these insects may contribute to novel and useful measures to control the bugs. The biology of kissing bugs, their life cycle, method of feeding and other behaviours contributing to the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi are explained. We close with a discussion of vector control measures and the allergic complications of kissing bug bites, a feature of particular importance in the United States.