Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems: A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins

Andrew Cohen, Michael M. McGlue, Geoffrey S. Ellis, Hiran Zani, Peter W. Swarzenski, Mario L. Assine, Aguinaldo Silva

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lake deposystems are commonly associated with retroarc mountain belts in the geological record. These deposystems are poorly characterized in modern retroarcs, placing limits on our ability to interpret environmental signals from ancient deposits. To address this problem, we have synthesized our existing knowledge about the distribution, morphometrics, and sedimentary geochemical characteristics of tectonically formed lakes in the central Andean retroarc. Large, active mountain belts such as the Andes frequently create an excess of sediment, to the point that modeling and observational data both suggest their adjacent retroarc basins will be rapidly overfilled by sediments. Lake formation, requiring topographic closure, demands special conditions such as topographic isolation and arid climatic conditions to reduce sediment generation, and bedrock lithologies that yield little siliciclastic sediment. Lacustrine deposition in the modern Andean retroarc has different characteristics in the six major morphotectonic zones discussed. (1) High-elevation hinterland basins of the arid Puna-Altiplano Plateau frequently contain underfilled and balanced-filled lakes that are potentially long-lived and display relatively rapid sedimentation rates. (2) Lakes are rare in piggyback basins, although a transition zone exists where basins that originally formed as piggybacks are transferred to the hinterland through forward propagation of the thrust belt. Here, lakes are moderately abundant and long-lived and display somewhat lower sedimentation rates than in the hinterland. (3) Wedge-top and (4) foredeep deposystems of the Andean retroarc are generally overfilled, and lakes are small and ephemeral. (5) Semihumid Andean backbulge basins contain abundant small lakes, which are moderately long-lived because of underfilling by sediment and low sedimentation rates. (6) Broken foreland lakes are common, typically underfilled, large, and long-lived playa or shallow systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMemoir of the Geological Society of America
PublisherGeological Society of America
Pages309-335
Number of pages27
Volume212
ISBN (Print)9780813712123
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015

Publication series

NameMemoir of the Geological Society of America
Volume212
ISSN (Print)00721069

Fingerprint

lake
basin
sedimentation rate
sediment
piggyback basin
mountain
playa
forearc basin
geological record
transition zone
bedrock
lithology
thrust
plateau
modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Cohen, A., McGlue, M. M., Ellis, G. S., Zani, H., Swarzenski, P. W., Assine, M. L., & Silva, A. (2015). Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems: A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins. In Memoir of the Geological Society of America (Vol. 212, pp. 309-335). (Memoir of the Geological Society of America; Vol. 212). Geological Society of America. https://doi.org/10.1130/2015.1212(16)

Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems : A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins. / Cohen, Andrew; McGlue, Michael M.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Zani, Hiran; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Assine, Mario L.; Silva, Aguinaldo.

Memoir of the Geological Society of America. Vol. 212 Geological Society of America, 2015. p. 309-335 (Memoir of the Geological Society of America; Vol. 212).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Cohen, A, McGlue, MM, Ellis, GS, Zani, H, Swarzenski, PW, Assine, ML & Silva, A 2015, Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems: A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins. in Memoir of the Geological Society of America. vol. 212, Memoir of the Geological Society of America, vol. 212, Geological Society of America, pp. 309-335. https://doi.org/10.1130/2015.1212(16)
Cohen A, McGlue MM, Ellis GS, Zani H, Swarzenski PW, Assine ML et al. Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems: A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins. In Memoir of the Geological Society of America. Vol. 212. Geological Society of America. 2015. p. 309-335. (Memoir of the Geological Society of America). https://doi.org/10.1130/2015.1212(16)
Cohen, Andrew ; McGlue, Michael M. ; Ellis, Geoffrey S. ; Zani, Hiran ; Swarzenski, Peter W. ; Assine, Mario L. ; Silva, Aguinaldo. / Lake formation, characteristics, and evolution in retroarc deposystems : A synthesis of the modern Andean orogen and its associated basins. Memoir of the Geological Society of America. Vol. 212 Geological Society of America, 2015. pp. 309-335 (Memoir of the Geological Society of America).
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