Lateral sequence walking in infant Papio cynocephalus: Implications for the evolution of diagonal sequence walking in primates

Liza J. Shapiro, David A Raichlen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

61 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

One of the most distinctive aspects of primate quadrupedal walking is the use of diagonal sequence footfalls in combination with diagonal-couplets interlimb timing. Numerous hypotheses have been offered to explain why primates might have evolved this type of gait, yet this important question remains unresolved. Because infant primates use a wider variety of quadrupedal gaits than do adults, they provide a natural experiment with which to test hypotheses about the evolution of unique aspects of primate quadrupedalism. In this study, we present kinematic data on two infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in order to test the recent hypothesis that diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets walking might have evolved in primates because their limb positioning provides stability in a small branch environment (Cartmill et al. [2002] Zool J Linn Soc 136:401-420). To assess hindlimb position at the moment of forelimb touchdown, we measured hindlimb angular excursion and ankle position for 84 walking strides, across three different types of gaits (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets (DSDC); lateral sequence lateral couplets (LSLC); and lateral sequence diagonal couplets (LSDC)). Results indicate that if a forelimb were to contact an unstable substrate, LSLC walking provides as much, and perhaps more, stability when compared to DSDC walking. Therefore, it appears that this moment in a stride was unlikely to be a particularly important selective factor in the evolution of DSDC walking. Further insight into this issue will likely be gained by observations of primate quadrupedalism in natural environments, where the use of lateral sequence gaits might be more common than currently known.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-213
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
Volume126
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Papio cynocephalus
walking
Primates
Walking
infant
gait
Gait
Forelimb
Hindlimb
forelimbs
contact
Papio
experiment
limbs (animal)
kinematics
Biomechanical Phenomena
Ankle
Extremities
testing

Keywords

  • Baboons
  • Footfall sequence
  • Gait
  • Locomotion
  • Primates
  • Quadrupedalism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Anthropology

Cite this

@article{61ef031429034191a5ba12d0c52a25ae,
title = "Lateral sequence walking in infant Papio cynocephalus: Implications for the evolution of diagonal sequence walking in primates",
abstract = "One of the most distinctive aspects of primate quadrupedal walking is the use of diagonal sequence footfalls in combination with diagonal-couplets interlimb timing. Numerous hypotheses have been offered to explain why primates might have evolved this type of gait, yet this important question remains unresolved. Because infant primates use a wider variety of quadrupedal gaits than do adults, they provide a natural experiment with which to test hypotheses about the evolution of unique aspects of primate quadrupedalism. In this study, we present kinematic data on two infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in order to test the recent hypothesis that diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets walking might have evolved in primates because their limb positioning provides stability in a small branch environment (Cartmill et al. [2002] Zool J Linn Soc 136:401-420). To assess hindlimb position at the moment of forelimb touchdown, we measured hindlimb angular excursion and ankle position for 84 walking strides, across three different types of gaits (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets (DSDC); lateral sequence lateral couplets (LSLC); and lateral sequence diagonal couplets (LSDC)). Results indicate that if a forelimb were to contact an unstable substrate, LSLC walking provides as much, and perhaps more, stability when compared to DSDC walking. Therefore, it appears that this moment in a stride was unlikely to be a particularly important selective factor in the evolution of DSDC walking. Further insight into this issue will likely be gained by observations of primate quadrupedalism in natural environments, where the use of lateral sequence gaits might be more common than currently known.",
keywords = "Baboons, Footfall sequence, Gait, Locomotion, Primates, Quadrupedalism",
author = "Shapiro, {Liza J.} and Raichlen, {David A}",
year = "2005",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1002/ajpa.20049",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "126",
pages = "205--213",
journal = "American Journal of Physical Anthropology",
issn = "0002-9483",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lateral sequence walking in infant Papio cynocephalus

T2 - Implications for the evolution of diagonal sequence walking in primates

AU - Shapiro, Liza J.

AU - Raichlen, David A

PY - 2005/2

Y1 - 2005/2

N2 - One of the most distinctive aspects of primate quadrupedal walking is the use of diagonal sequence footfalls in combination with diagonal-couplets interlimb timing. Numerous hypotheses have been offered to explain why primates might have evolved this type of gait, yet this important question remains unresolved. Because infant primates use a wider variety of quadrupedal gaits than do adults, they provide a natural experiment with which to test hypotheses about the evolution of unique aspects of primate quadrupedalism. In this study, we present kinematic data on two infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in order to test the recent hypothesis that diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets walking might have evolved in primates because their limb positioning provides stability in a small branch environment (Cartmill et al. [2002] Zool J Linn Soc 136:401-420). To assess hindlimb position at the moment of forelimb touchdown, we measured hindlimb angular excursion and ankle position for 84 walking strides, across three different types of gaits (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets (DSDC); lateral sequence lateral couplets (LSLC); and lateral sequence diagonal couplets (LSDC)). Results indicate that if a forelimb were to contact an unstable substrate, LSLC walking provides as much, and perhaps more, stability when compared to DSDC walking. Therefore, it appears that this moment in a stride was unlikely to be a particularly important selective factor in the evolution of DSDC walking. Further insight into this issue will likely be gained by observations of primate quadrupedalism in natural environments, where the use of lateral sequence gaits might be more common than currently known.

AB - One of the most distinctive aspects of primate quadrupedal walking is the use of diagonal sequence footfalls in combination with diagonal-couplets interlimb timing. Numerous hypotheses have been offered to explain why primates might have evolved this type of gait, yet this important question remains unresolved. Because infant primates use a wider variety of quadrupedal gaits than do adults, they provide a natural experiment with which to test hypotheses about the evolution of unique aspects of primate quadrupedalism. In this study, we present kinematic data on two infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in order to test the recent hypothesis that diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets walking might have evolved in primates because their limb positioning provides stability in a small branch environment (Cartmill et al. [2002] Zool J Linn Soc 136:401-420). To assess hindlimb position at the moment of forelimb touchdown, we measured hindlimb angular excursion and ankle position for 84 walking strides, across three different types of gaits (diagonal sequence, diagonal couplets (DSDC); lateral sequence lateral couplets (LSLC); and lateral sequence diagonal couplets (LSDC)). Results indicate that if a forelimb were to contact an unstable substrate, LSLC walking provides as much, and perhaps more, stability when compared to DSDC walking. Therefore, it appears that this moment in a stride was unlikely to be a particularly important selective factor in the evolution of DSDC walking. Further insight into this issue will likely be gained by observations of primate quadrupedalism in natural environments, where the use of lateral sequence gaits might be more common than currently known.

KW - Baboons

KW - Footfall sequence

KW - Gait

KW - Locomotion

KW - Primates

KW - Quadrupedalism

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=12444268328&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=12444268328&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/ajpa.20049

DO - 10.1002/ajpa.20049

M3 - Article

C2 - 15386221

AN - SCOPUS:12444268328

VL - 126

SP - 205

EP - 213

JO - American Journal of Physical Anthropology

JF - American Journal of Physical Anthropology

SN - 0002-9483

IS - 2

ER -