Laverovite, K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada

Elena Sokolova, Maxwell C. Day, And Frank C. Hawthorne, Anatoly V. Kasatkin, Robert T Downs, László Horváth, Elsa Pfenninger-Horváth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Laverovite (IMA 2017-009b), ideally K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, is a kupletskite-group (astrophyllite-supergroup) mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada. Associated minerals are zircophyllite, kupletskite, astrophyllite, aegirine, analcime, orthoclase, and albite. Laverovite is brown, transparent in thin grains, and has a vitreous luster. Mohs hardness is 3, D calc . = 3.367 g/cm 3 . Laverovite is biaxial (-) with refractive indices (λ = 589 nm) α = 1.670(2), β = 1.710(5), γ = 1.740(5); 2V meas . = 82(2)°, 2V calc . = 80°, strong dispersion: r > v. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001}. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2 O 5 0.56, ZrO 2 9.78, TiO 2 4.69, SiO 2 33.52, Al 2 O 3 0.94, SrO 0.13, ZnO 0.07, FeO 13.94, MnO 20.51, CaO 0.48, MgO 0.76, Cs 2 O 0.05, K 2 O 6.00, Na 2 O 2.28, F 1.80, H 2 O calc . 2.57, sum 97.32 wt.%; H 2 O was calculated from crystal-structure analysis. The empirical formula based on 31.15 (O + F) apfu with [OH + F = 5 pfu and H 2 O = 0.15 pfu] is (K 1.78 Sr 002 Cs 0.010.19 ) σ2 (□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ) σ2 (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ) σ1 (Mn 4.03 Fe 2+ 2.71 Mg 0.25 Zn 0.01 ) σ7 (Zr 1.11 Ti 0.82 Nb 0.06 Mg 0.01 ) σ2 [(Si 7.78 Al 0.26 ) σ8.04 O 24 ]O 2 [(OH) 3.68 F 0.32 ] σ4 F[□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] σ2 , Z = 1. The simplified formula is K 2 Na(Mn,Fe 2+ ) 7 (Zr,Ti) 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F. Laverovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.4329(1), b 11.9232(3), c 11.7491(3) Å, α 112.905(2), β 94.696(1), γ 103.178(1)°, V 670.14(5) Å 3 . The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction data [d (Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 3.452(92)(003,111); 2.788(97)(131; 142); 2.680(68)211); 2.589(100)(130); 143; 2.504(44)(212), and 1.590(50)(351); 322). The crystal structure has been refined to R 1 = 3.26% for 3757 observed (F o > 4σF) reflections. In the crystal structure of laverovite, there are four [4] T sites, with <T-O> = 1.621 Å, occupied mainly by Si, with minor Al. TO 4 tetrahedra constitute the T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbon. The Zr-dominant [6] D site is occupied mainly by Zr and Ti and minor Nb and Mg, with <D-φ> = 2.002 Å (φ = O, F). The T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbons and D octahedra constitute the H (Heteropolyhedral) sheet. In the O (Octahedral) sheet, there are four Mn 2+ -dominant [6] M(1-4) sites, with <M(1-4)-φ=2.187, 2.174, 2.161, and 2.146 Å (φ = O, OH). Two H sheets and the central O sheet form the HOH block, and adjacent HOH blocks link via a common X P D anion of two D octahedra. In the I (Intermediate) block between adjacent HOH blocks, there are two interstitial cation sites, A and B, and a W A site, partly occupied by H 2 O. The A site splits into two partly occupied sites, [13] A(1) and [6] A(2), with A(1)-A(2)=1.108 Å. The [13] A(1) site is occupied at 90.5%: mainly by K, with minor Sr and Cs, <A(1)-φ>=3.326 Å; the [6] A(2) site is occupied at 7.5% by Na: [□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ], <A(2)-φ> = 2.29 Å (φ = O, F, H 2 O). The aggregate content of the A site is (K 1.78 Sr 0.02 Cs 0.01 Na 0.150.04 ) σ2 , ideally K 2 apfu. The [10] B site is occupied by (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ), <B-□> = 2.646 Å. The W A site is occupied at 7.5% by H 2 O: [□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] pfu. The presence of OH and H 2 O groups in the laverovite structure was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is named "laverovite" after Professor Nikolay Pavlovich Laverov (1930-2016), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a prominent Russian ore geologist and an expert in uranium ore deposits and radiogenic waste disposal. Laverovite is a Mn-analogue of zircophyllite, K 2 NaFe 2+ 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-213
Number of pages13
JournalCanadian Mineralogist
Volume57
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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crystal structure
Minerals
Crystal structure
astrophyllite group
mineral
Ore deposits
analcime
aegirine
orthoclase
Uranium
refractive index
albite
infrared spectroscopy
Waste disposal
electron probe analysis
waste disposal
ore deposit
X ray powder diffraction
chemical analysis
Ores

Keywords

  • Astrophyllite supergroup
  • Crystal structure
  • Electron microprobe analysis
  • FTIR spectroscopy
  • Laverovite
  • Mont Saint-Hilaire
  • New mineral
  • Qúebec

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Laverovite, K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada . / Sokolova, Elena; Day, Maxwell C.; Hawthorne, And Frank C.; Kasatkin, Anatoly V.; Downs, Robert T; Horváth, László; Pfenninger-Horváth, Elsa.

In: Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 57, No. 2, 01.01.2019, p. 201-213.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sokolova, Elena ; Day, Maxwell C. ; Hawthorne, And Frank C. ; Kasatkin, Anatoly V. ; Downs, Robert T ; Horváth, László ; Pfenninger-Horváth, Elsa. / Laverovite, K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada In: Canadian Mineralogist. 2019 ; Vol. 57, No. 2. pp. 201-213.
@article{3197f7a222cf44fdb0770f476732d942,
title = "Laverovite, K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Qu{\'e}bec, Canada",
abstract = "Laverovite (IMA 2017-009b), ideally K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, is a kupletskite-group (astrophyllite-supergroup) mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Qu{\'e}bec, Canada. Associated minerals are zircophyllite, kupletskite, astrophyllite, aegirine, analcime, orthoclase, and albite. Laverovite is brown, transparent in thin grains, and has a vitreous luster. Mohs hardness is 3, D calc . = 3.367 g/cm 3 . Laverovite is biaxial (-) with refractive indices (λ = 589 nm) α = 1.670(2), β = 1.710(5), γ = 1.740(5); 2V meas . = 82(2)°, 2V calc . = 80°, strong dispersion: r > v. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001}. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2 O 5 0.56, ZrO 2 9.78, TiO 2 4.69, SiO 2 33.52, Al 2 O 3 0.94, SrO 0.13, ZnO 0.07, FeO 13.94, MnO 20.51, CaO 0.48, MgO 0.76, Cs 2 O 0.05, K 2 O 6.00, Na 2 O 2.28, F 1.80, H 2 O calc . 2.57, sum 97.32 wt.{\%}; H 2 O was calculated from crystal-structure analysis. The empirical formula based on 31.15 (O + F) apfu with [OH + F = 5 pfu and H 2 O = 0.15 pfu] is (K 1.78 Sr 002 Cs 0.01 □ 0.19 ) σ2 (□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ) σ2 (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ) σ1 (Mn 4.03 Fe 2+ 2.71 Mg 0.25 Zn 0.01 ) σ7 (Zr 1.11 Ti 0.82 Nb 0.06 Mg 0.01 ) σ2 [(Si 7.78 Al 0.26 ) σ8.04 O 24 ]O 2 [(OH) 3.68 F 0.32 ] σ4 F[□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] σ2 , Z = 1. The simplified formula is K 2 Na(Mn,Fe 2+ ) 7 (Zr,Ti) 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F. Laverovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.4329(1), b 11.9232(3), c 11.7491(3) {\AA}, α 112.905(2), β 94.696(1), γ 103.178(1)°, V 670.14(5) {\AA} 3 . The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction data [d ({\AA})(I)(hkl)] are: 3.452(92)(003,111); 2.788(97)(131; 142); 2.680(68)211); 2.589(100)(130); 143; 2.504(44)(212), and 1.590(50)(351); 322). The crystal structure has been refined to R 1 = 3.26{\%} for 3757 observed (F o > 4σF) reflections. In the crystal structure of laverovite, there are four [4] T sites, with <T-O> = 1.621 {\AA}, occupied mainly by Si, with minor Al. TO 4 tetrahedra constitute the T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbon. The Zr-dominant [6] D site is occupied mainly by Zr and Ti and minor Nb and Mg, with <D-φ> = 2.002 {\AA} (φ = O, F). The T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbons and D octahedra constitute the H (Heteropolyhedral) sheet. In the O (Octahedral) sheet, there are four Mn 2+ -dominant [6] M(1-4) sites, with <M(1-4)-φ=2.187, 2.174, 2.161, and 2.146 {\AA} (φ = O, OH). Two H sheets and the central O sheet form the HOH block, and adjacent HOH blocks link via a common X P D anion of two D octahedra. In the I (Intermediate) block between adjacent HOH blocks, there are two interstitial cation sites, A and B, and a W A site, partly occupied by H 2 O. The A site splits into two partly occupied sites, [13] A(1) and [6] A(2), with A(1)-A(2)=1.108 {\AA}. The [13] A(1) site is occupied at 90.5{\%}: mainly by K, with minor Sr and Cs, <A(1)-φ>=3.326 {\AA}; the [6] A(2) site is occupied at 7.5{\%} by Na: [□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ], <A(2)-φ> = 2.29 {\AA} (φ = O, F, H 2 O). The aggregate content of the A site is (K 1.78 Sr 0.02 Cs 0.01 Na 0.15 □ 0.04 ) σ2 , ideally K 2 apfu. The [10] B site is occupied by (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ), <B-□> = 2.646 {\AA}. The W A site is occupied at 7.5{\%} by H 2 O: [□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] pfu. The presence of OH and H 2 O groups in the laverovite structure was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is named {"}laverovite{"} after Professor Nikolay Pavlovich Laverov (1930-2016), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a prominent Russian ore geologist and an expert in uranium ore deposits and radiogenic waste disposal. Laverovite is a Mn-analogue of zircophyllite, K 2 NaFe 2+ 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F.",
keywords = "Astrophyllite supergroup, Crystal structure, Electron microprobe analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, Laverovite, Mont Saint-Hilaire, New mineral, Q{\'u}ebec",
author = "Elena Sokolova and Day, {Maxwell C.} and Hawthorne, {And Frank C.} and Kasatkin, {Anatoly V.} and Downs, {Robert T} and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Horv{\'a}th and Elsa Pfenninger-Horv{\'a}th",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3749/canmin.1800071",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "57",
pages = "201--213",
journal = "Canadian Mineralogist",
issn = "0008-4476",
publisher = "Mineralogical Association of Canada",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Laverovite, K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, a new astrophyllite-supergroup mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada

AU - Sokolova, Elena

AU - Day, Maxwell C.

AU - Hawthorne, And Frank C.

AU - Kasatkin, Anatoly V.

AU - Downs, Robert T

AU - Horváth, László

AU - Pfenninger-Horváth, Elsa

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Laverovite (IMA 2017-009b), ideally K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, is a kupletskite-group (astrophyllite-supergroup) mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada. Associated minerals are zircophyllite, kupletskite, astrophyllite, aegirine, analcime, orthoclase, and albite. Laverovite is brown, transparent in thin grains, and has a vitreous luster. Mohs hardness is 3, D calc . = 3.367 g/cm 3 . Laverovite is biaxial (-) with refractive indices (λ = 589 nm) α = 1.670(2), β = 1.710(5), γ = 1.740(5); 2V meas . = 82(2)°, 2V calc . = 80°, strong dispersion: r > v. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001}. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2 O 5 0.56, ZrO 2 9.78, TiO 2 4.69, SiO 2 33.52, Al 2 O 3 0.94, SrO 0.13, ZnO 0.07, FeO 13.94, MnO 20.51, CaO 0.48, MgO 0.76, Cs 2 O 0.05, K 2 O 6.00, Na 2 O 2.28, F 1.80, H 2 O calc . 2.57, sum 97.32 wt.%; H 2 O was calculated from crystal-structure analysis. The empirical formula based on 31.15 (O + F) apfu with [OH + F = 5 pfu and H 2 O = 0.15 pfu] is (K 1.78 Sr 002 Cs 0.01 □ 0.19 ) σ2 (□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ) σ2 (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ) σ1 (Mn 4.03 Fe 2+ 2.71 Mg 0.25 Zn 0.01 ) σ7 (Zr 1.11 Ti 0.82 Nb 0.06 Mg 0.01 ) σ2 [(Si 7.78 Al 0.26 ) σ8.04 O 24 ]O 2 [(OH) 3.68 F 0.32 ] σ4 F[□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] σ2 , Z = 1. The simplified formula is K 2 Na(Mn,Fe 2+ ) 7 (Zr,Ti) 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F. Laverovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.4329(1), b 11.9232(3), c 11.7491(3) Å, α 112.905(2), β 94.696(1), γ 103.178(1)°, V 670.14(5) Å 3 . The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction data [d (Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 3.452(92)(003,111); 2.788(97)(131; 142); 2.680(68)211); 2.589(100)(130); 143; 2.504(44)(212), and 1.590(50)(351); 322). The crystal structure has been refined to R 1 = 3.26% for 3757 observed (F o > 4σF) reflections. In the crystal structure of laverovite, there are four [4] T sites, with <T-O> = 1.621 Å, occupied mainly by Si, with minor Al. TO 4 tetrahedra constitute the T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbon. The Zr-dominant [6] D site is occupied mainly by Zr and Ti and minor Nb and Mg, with <D-φ> = 2.002 Å (φ = O, F). The T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbons and D octahedra constitute the H (Heteropolyhedral) sheet. In the O (Octahedral) sheet, there are four Mn 2+ -dominant [6] M(1-4) sites, with <M(1-4)-φ=2.187, 2.174, 2.161, and 2.146 Å (φ = O, OH). Two H sheets and the central O sheet form the HOH block, and adjacent HOH blocks link via a common X P D anion of two D octahedra. In the I (Intermediate) block between adjacent HOH blocks, there are two interstitial cation sites, A and B, and a W A site, partly occupied by H 2 O. The A site splits into two partly occupied sites, [13] A(1) and [6] A(2), with A(1)-A(2)=1.108 Å. The [13] A(1) site is occupied at 90.5%: mainly by K, with minor Sr and Cs, <A(1)-φ>=3.326 Å; the [6] A(2) site is occupied at 7.5% by Na: [□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ], <A(2)-φ> = 2.29 Å (φ = O, F, H 2 O). The aggregate content of the A site is (K 1.78 Sr 0.02 Cs 0.01 Na 0.15 □ 0.04 ) σ2 , ideally K 2 apfu. The [10] B site is occupied by (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ), <B-□> = 2.646 Å. The W A site is occupied at 7.5% by H 2 O: [□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] pfu. The presence of OH and H 2 O groups in the laverovite structure was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is named "laverovite" after Professor Nikolay Pavlovich Laverov (1930-2016), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a prominent Russian ore geologist and an expert in uranium ore deposits and radiogenic waste disposal. Laverovite is a Mn-analogue of zircophyllite, K 2 NaFe 2+ 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F.

AB - Laverovite (IMA 2017-009b), ideally K 2 NaMn 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F, is a kupletskite-group (astrophyllite-supergroup) mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Québec, Canada. Associated minerals are zircophyllite, kupletskite, astrophyllite, aegirine, analcime, orthoclase, and albite. Laverovite is brown, transparent in thin grains, and has a vitreous luster. Mohs hardness is 3, D calc . = 3.367 g/cm 3 . Laverovite is biaxial (-) with refractive indices (λ = 589 nm) α = 1.670(2), β = 1.710(5), γ = 1.740(5); 2V meas . = 82(2)°, 2V calc . = 80°, strong dispersion: r > v. Cleavage is perfect parallel to {001}. Chemical analysis by electron microprobe gave Nb 2 O 5 0.56, ZrO 2 9.78, TiO 2 4.69, SiO 2 33.52, Al 2 O 3 0.94, SrO 0.13, ZnO 0.07, FeO 13.94, MnO 20.51, CaO 0.48, MgO 0.76, Cs 2 O 0.05, K 2 O 6.00, Na 2 O 2.28, F 1.80, H 2 O calc . 2.57, sum 97.32 wt.%; H 2 O was calculated from crystal-structure analysis. The empirical formula based on 31.15 (O + F) apfu with [OH + F = 5 pfu and H 2 O = 0.15 pfu] is (K 1.78 Sr 002 Cs 0.01 □ 0.19 ) σ2 (□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ) σ2 (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ) σ1 (Mn 4.03 Fe 2+ 2.71 Mg 0.25 Zn 0.01 ) σ7 (Zr 1.11 Ti 0.82 Nb 0.06 Mg 0.01 ) σ2 [(Si 7.78 Al 0.26 ) σ8.04 O 24 ]O 2 [(OH) 3.68 F 0.32 ] σ4 F[□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] σ2 , Z = 1. The simplified formula is K 2 Na(Mn,Fe 2+ ) 7 (Zr,Ti) 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F. Laverovite is triclinic, space group P1, a 5.4329(1), b 11.9232(3), c 11.7491(3) Å, α 112.905(2), β 94.696(1), γ 103.178(1)°, V 670.14(5) Å 3 . The six strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction data [d (Å)(I)(hkl)] are: 3.452(92)(003,111); 2.788(97)(131; 142); 2.680(68)211); 2.589(100)(130); 143; 2.504(44)(212), and 1.590(50)(351); 322). The crystal structure has been refined to R 1 = 3.26% for 3757 observed (F o > 4σF) reflections. In the crystal structure of laverovite, there are four [4] T sites, with <T-O> = 1.621 Å, occupied mainly by Si, with minor Al. TO 4 tetrahedra constitute the T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbon. The Zr-dominant [6] D site is occupied mainly by Zr and Ti and minor Nb and Mg, with <D-φ> = 2.002 Å (φ = O, F). The T 4 O 12 astrophyllite ribbons and D octahedra constitute the H (Heteropolyhedral) sheet. In the O (Octahedral) sheet, there are four Mn 2+ -dominant [6] M(1-4) sites, with <M(1-4)-φ=2.187, 2.174, 2.161, and 2.146 Å (φ = O, OH). Two H sheets and the central O sheet form the HOH block, and adjacent HOH blocks link via a common X P D anion of two D octahedra. In the I (Intermediate) block between adjacent HOH blocks, there are two interstitial cation sites, A and B, and a W A site, partly occupied by H 2 O. The A site splits into two partly occupied sites, [13] A(1) and [6] A(2), with A(1)-A(2)=1.108 Å. The [13] A(1) site is occupied at 90.5%: mainly by K, with minor Sr and Cs, <A(1)-φ>=3.326 Å; the [6] A(2) site is occupied at 7.5% by Na: [□ 1.85 Na 0.15 ], <A(2)-φ> = 2.29 Å (φ = O, F, H 2 O). The aggregate content of the A site is (K 1.78 Sr 0.02 Cs 0.01 Na 0.15 □ 0.04 ) σ2 , ideally K 2 apfu. The [10] B site is occupied by (Na 0.88 Ca 0.12 ), <B-□> = 2.646 Å. The W A site is occupied at 7.5% by H 2 O: [□ 1.85 (H 2 O) 0.15 ] pfu. The presence of OH and H 2 O groups in the laverovite structure was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. The mineral is named "laverovite" after Professor Nikolay Pavlovich Laverov (1930-2016), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a prominent Russian ore geologist and an expert in uranium ore deposits and radiogenic waste disposal. Laverovite is a Mn-analogue of zircophyllite, K 2 NaFe 2+ 7 Zr 2 (Si 4 O 12 ) 2 O 2 (OH) 4 F.

KW - Astrophyllite supergroup

KW - Crystal structure

KW - Electron microprobe analysis

KW - FTIR spectroscopy

KW - Laverovite

KW - Mont Saint-Hilaire

KW - New mineral

KW - Qúebec

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DO - 10.3749/canmin.1800071

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JO - Canadian Mineralogist

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SN - 0008-4476

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