Ligand-mediated metal-metal interactions and localized versus delocalized mixed-valence cation states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron characterized in the gas phase by valence photoelectron spectroscopy

Dennis L Lichtenberger, Hua Jun Fan, Nadine E. Gruhn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate metal-metal interactions and the mixed-valence positive ion states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron. The spectra of phenylferrocene and 1,1′-diphenylferrocene a re used to show that, in comparison to ferrocene, the extension of the ligand π system and the reduced ligand symmetry do not have an appreciable effect on the band profile of the metal-based ionizations. In contrast, the initial ionization bands of both bimetallic molecules, which derive from the metal-based 2E2g ionizations of ferrocene, are spread over a wide energy range, indicating delocalization across the two metal halves of the molecule and formal oxidation states of +21/2 for each metal atom in these cation states. The broadening and splitting of this ionization band for bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron is twice that observed for biferrocene, consistent with a through-bond ligand-mediated mechanism of interaction. Ionizations of the bimetallic molecules that derive from the metal-based 2A1g ionizations of ferrocene occur in a single narrow band, indicating that both through-space and through-ligand interactions are not appreciable for the dz2-based orbitals. The difference between the metal-metal interactions in these positive ion states follows from the different overlap and energy match of the metal orbitals with fulvalendiyl orbitals of the appropriate symmetry. Most important to the metal-metal interaction in the ground ion state are empty fulvalendiyl orbitals with two nodes perpendicular to the C5 planes and gerade and ungerade symmetries with respect to the inversion centers of the molecules. In the gas phase, both species are found to be strongly interacting, delocalized mixed-valence compounds in their ground ion states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-85
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Organometallic Chemistry
Volume666
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 20 2003

Fingerprint

Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Photoelectron spectroscopy
Cations
Gases
Positive ions
Metals
Ligands
photoelectron spectroscopy
vapor phases
valence
cations
ligands
metals
Ionization
interactions
ionization
Ions
orbitals
Molecules
positive ions

Keywords

  • Biferrocene
  • Fulvalendiyl
  • Mixed-valence
  • Photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{aa4557ac294e43458a58ea22ff58199a,
title = "Ligand-mediated metal-metal interactions and localized versus delocalized mixed-valence cation states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron characterized in the gas phase by valence photoelectron spectroscopy",
abstract = "Gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate metal-metal interactions and the mixed-valence positive ion states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron. The spectra of phenylferrocene and 1,1′-diphenylferrocene a re used to show that, in comparison to ferrocene, the extension of the ligand π system and the reduced ligand symmetry do not have an appreciable effect on the band profile of the metal-based ionizations. In contrast, the initial ionization bands of both bimetallic molecules, which derive from the metal-based 2E2g ionizations of ferrocene, are spread over a wide energy range, indicating delocalization across the two metal halves of the molecule and formal oxidation states of +21/2 for each metal atom in these cation states. The broadening and splitting of this ionization band for bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron is twice that observed for biferrocene, consistent with a through-bond ligand-mediated mechanism of interaction. Ionizations of the bimetallic molecules that derive from the metal-based 2A1g ionizations of ferrocene occur in a single narrow band, indicating that both through-space and through-ligand interactions are not appreciable for the dz2-based orbitals. The difference between the metal-metal interactions in these positive ion states follows from the different overlap and energy match of the metal orbitals with fulvalendiyl orbitals of the appropriate symmetry. Most important to the metal-metal interaction in the ground ion state are empty fulvalendiyl orbitals with two nodes perpendicular to the C5 planes and gerade and ungerade symmetries with respect to the inversion centers of the molecules. In the gas phase, both species are found to be strongly interacting, delocalized mixed-valence compounds in their ground ion states.",
keywords = "Biferrocene, Fulvalendiyl, Mixed-valence, Photoelectron spectroscopy",
author = "Lichtenberger, {Dennis L} and Fan, {Hua Jun} and Gruhn, {Nadine E.}",
year = "2003",
month = "1",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/S0022-328X(02)02035-1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "666",
pages = "75--85",
journal = "Journal of Organometallic Chemistry",
issn = "0022-328X",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1-2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ligand-mediated metal-metal interactions and localized versus delocalized mixed-valence cation states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron characterized in the gas phase by valence photoelectron spectroscopy

AU - Lichtenberger, Dennis L

AU - Fan, Hua Jun

AU - Gruhn, Nadine E.

PY - 2003/1/20

Y1 - 2003/1/20

N2 - Gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate metal-metal interactions and the mixed-valence positive ion states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron. The spectra of phenylferrocene and 1,1′-diphenylferrocene a re used to show that, in comparison to ferrocene, the extension of the ligand π system and the reduced ligand symmetry do not have an appreciable effect on the band profile of the metal-based ionizations. In contrast, the initial ionization bands of both bimetallic molecules, which derive from the metal-based 2E2g ionizations of ferrocene, are spread over a wide energy range, indicating delocalization across the two metal halves of the molecule and formal oxidation states of +21/2 for each metal atom in these cation states. The broadening and splitting of this ionization band for bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron is twice that observed for biferrocene, consistent with a through-bond ligand-mediated mechanism of interaction. Ionizations of the bimetallic molecules that derive from the metal-based 2A1g ionizations of ferrocene occur in a single narrow band, indicating that both through-space and through-ligand interactions are not appreciable for the dz2-based orbitals. The difference between the metal-metal interactions in these positive ion states follows from the different overlap and energy match of the metal orbitals with fulvalendiyl orbitals of the appropriate symmetry. Most important to the metal-metal interaction in the ground ion state are empty fulvalendiyl orbitals with two nodes perpendicular to the C5 planes and gerade and ungerade symmetries with respect to the inversion centers of the molecules. In the gas phase, both species are found to be strongly interacting, delocalized mixed-valence compounds in their ground ion states.

AB - Gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy is used to investigate metal-metal interactions and the mixed-valence positive ion states of biferrocene and bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron. The spectra of phenylferrocene and 1,1′-diphenylferrocene a re used to show that, in comparison to ferrocene, the extension of the ligand π system and the reduced ligand symmetry do not have an appreciable effect on the band profile of the metal-based ionizations. In contrast, the initial ionization bands of both bimetallic molecules, which derive from the metal-based 2E2g ionizations of ferrocene, are spread over a wide energy range, indicating delocalization across the two metal halves of the molecule and formal oxidation states of +21/2 for each metal atom in these cation states. The broadening and splitting of this ionization band for bis(μ-fulvalenediyl)diiron is twice that observed for biferrocene, consistent with a through-bond ligand-mediated mechanism of interaction. Ionizations of the bimetallic molecules that derive from the metal-based 2A1g ionizations of ferrocene occur in a single narrow band, indicating that both through-space and through-ligand interactions are not appreciable for the dz2-based orbitals. The difference between the metal-metal interactions in these positive ion states follows from the different overlap and energy match of the metal orbitals with fulvalendiyl orbitals of the appropriate symmetry. Most important to the metal-metal interaction in the ground ion state are empty fulvalendiyl orbitals with two nodes perpendicular to the C5 planes and gerade and ungerade symmetries with respect to the inversion centers of the molecules. In the gas phase, both species are found to be strongly interacting, delocalized mixed-valence compounds in their ground ion states.

KW - Biferrocene

KW - Fulvalendiyl

KW - Mixed-valence

KW - Photoelectron spectroscopy

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0037454843&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0037454843&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0022-328X(02)02035-1

DO - 10.1016/S0022-328X(02)02035-1

M3 - Article

VL - 666

SP - 75

EP - 85

JO - Journal of Organometallic Chemistry

JF - Journal of Organometallic Chemistry

SN - 0022-328X

IS - 1-2

ER -