Light and electron microscopic evidence of white spot disease in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius), and the kuruma shrimp, Penaeus japonicus (Bate), cultured in Taiwan

C. S. Wang, K. F.J. Tang, G. H. Kou, S. N. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

Since 1992, mass mortalities among cultured giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius), and kuruma shrimp, Penaeus japonicus (Bate), have been observed in Taiwan. The condition is known as 'white spot disease' (WSD), based on the characteristic white spots on the cuticle of diseased shrimp. With the scanning electron microscope, two sizes of white spots were observed. Each spot represented a protrusion on the inside surface of the carapace. The composition of white spots was similar to that of the cuticule, most calcium, as determined with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Histological studies of moribund, infected specimens revealed degenerated cells, characterized by hypertrophied nuclei, in various meso- and ectodermal tissues. Infected tissues included cuticular epidermis, connective tissue, lymphoid organ, antennal gland, and haematopoietic, gill and nervous tissue. Nuclei were Feulgen-positive and no occlusion body was found in the necrotic tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of rod-shaped and enveloped virions in the hypertrophied nuclei. The virions measured 298 ± 21 x 107 ± 8 nm in the giant tiger shrimp and 248 ± 12 x 104 ± 8 nm in the kuruma shrimp. In an experimental infection trial, cumulative mortality was 40% within 14 days under stress conditions. No mortality was observed in controls or in non-stressed infected shrimp. Experimental infections show that environmental stressors such as ammonia may enhance the severity of WSD virus infections in cultured shrimp.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)323-331
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Fish Diseases
Volume20
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)

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