Long-term evaluation of compliance with refuge requirements for Bt cotton

Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Kamlesh Kumar, Shannon Heuberger, Mike Whitlow, Larry Antilla, Timothy J. Dennehy, Bruce E. Tabashnik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Scopus citations


The success of the refuge strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops depends on compliance by farmers. However, the accuracy of previous estimates of compliance has been questioned. We have applied a novel approach based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to measure compliance with refuge requirements for Bt cotton in six Arizona regions from 1998 to 2003. Although compliance varied among regions, overall compliance was above 88% in five of six years. With the cooperation of farmers, our approach allows precise and economical assessment of compliance with the refuge strategy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-330
Number of pages4
JournalPest management science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2005



  • Biotechnology
  • Bt crops
  • Compliance with regulations
  • Geographic Information System
  • Refuge strategy
  • Resistance to Bt crops

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Insect Science

Cite this

Carrière, Y., Ellers-Kirk, C., Kumar, K., Heuberger, S., Whitlow, M., Antilla, L., Dennehy, T. J., & Tabashnik, B. E. (2005). Long-term evaluation of compliance with refuge requirements for Bt cotton. Pest management science, 61(4), 327-330. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1039