Low-Cost Livestock Global Positioning System Collar from Commercial Off-the-Shelf Parts

Jason W. Karl, James E. Sprinkle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices are a fundamental technology for quantifying the distribution and movement of livestock across landscapes. Although costs of GPS devices have decreased, it is still cost prohibitive to implement a large number of collars per study. Our objective was to develop and test a low-cost GPS collar using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic components to study livestock distribution and movement. Our COTS GPS tracker was built using the popular Arduino open-source microcontroller and a low-power timer board to cycle a GPS at defined intervals. Location data were saved to a data card in an open format for easy analysis. Total cost per COTS GPS device (including housing and collar) was $54.78. Average displacement from a known location and 95% circular error probability was 4.58 m, commensurate with other GPS collars. We tested durability and field performance of 25 COTS GPS collars against 24 existing GPS collars recording data at 5-min intervals in a southwest Idaho, United States study area. Our COTS GPS design and test showed that it is possible to manufacture low-cost location tracking devices, but the limitations of such devices must be considered relative to study objectives and duration. Low-cost location trackers will encourage collection of a higher density of location information to better understand patterns of livestock use in rangeland landscapes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)954-958
Number of pages5
JournalRangeland Ecology and Management
Volume72
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

global positioning systems
collars
livestock
GPS
cost
timers
durability
rangeland
rangelands
electronics
manufacturing
testing
duration

Keywords

  • animal tracking
  • Arduino
  • Global Positioning System
  • GPS location
  • livestock distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Cite this

Low-Cost Livestock Global Positioning System Collar from Commercial Off-the-Shelf Parts. / Karl, Jason W.; Sprinkle, James E.

In: Rangeland Ecology and Management, Vol. 72, No. 6, 11.2019, p. 954-958.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8de11758ac2b4ae4acc30045baf82c3e,
title = "Low-Cost Livestock Global Positioning System Collar from Commercial Off-the-Shelf Parts",
abstract = "Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices are a fundamental technology for quantifying the distribution and movement of livestock across landscapes. Although costs of GPS devices have decreased, it is still cost prohibitive to implement a large number of collars per study. Our objective was to develop and test a low-cost GPS collar using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic components to study livestock distribution and movement. Our COTS GPS tracker was built using the popular Arduino open-source microcontroller and a low-power timer board to cycle a GPS at defined intervals. Location data were saved to a data card in an open format for easy analysis. Total cost per COTS GPS device (including housing and collar) was $54.78. Average displacement from a known location and 95{\%} circular error probability was 4.58 m, commensurate with other GPS collars. We tested durability and field performance of 25 COTS GPS collars against 24 existing GPS collars recording data at 5-min intervals in a southwest Idaho, United States study area. Our COTS GPS design and test showed that it is possible to manufacture low-cost location tracking devices, but the limitations of such devices must be considered relative to study objectives and duration. Low-cost location trackers will encourage collection of a higher density of location information to better understand patterns of livestock use in rangeland landscapes.",
keywords = "animal tracking, Arduino, Global Positioning System, GPS location, livestock distribution",
author = "Karl, {Jason W.} and Sprinkle, {James E.}",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1016/j.rama.2019.08.003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "72",
pages = "954--958",
journal = "Rangeland Ecology and Management",
issn = "1550-7424",
publisher = "Society for Range Management",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low-Cost Livestock Global Positioning System Collar from Commercial Off-the-Shelf Parts

AU - Karl, Jason W.

AU - Sprinkle, James E.

PY - 2019/11

Y1 - 2019/11

N2 - Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices are a fundamental technology for quantifying the distribution and movement of livestock across landscapes. Although costs of GPS devices have decreased, it is still cost prohibitive to implement a large number of collars per study. Our objective was to develop and test a low-cost GPS collar using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic components to study livestock distribution and movement. Our COTS GPS tracker was built using the popular Arduino open-source microcontroller and a low-power timer board to cycle a GPS at defined intervals. Location data were saved to a data card in an open format for easy analysis. Total cost per COTS GPS device (including housing and collar) was $54.78. Average displacement from a known location and 95% circular error probability was 4.58 m, commensurate with other GPS collars. We tested durability and field performance of 25 COTS GPS collars against 24 existing GPS collars recording data at 5-min intervals in a southwest Idaho, United States study area. Our COTS GPS design and test showed that it is possible to manufacture low-cost location tracking devices, but the limitations of such devices must be considered relative to study objectives and duration. Low-cost location trackers will encourage collection of a higher density of location information to better understand patterns of livestock use in rangeland landscapes.

AB - Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking devices are a fundamental technology for quantifying the distribution and movement of livestock across landscapes. Although costs of GPS devices have decreased, it is still cost prohibitive to implement a large number of collars per study. Our objective was to develop and test a low-cost GPS collar using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic components to study livestock distribution and movement. Our COTS GPS tracker was built using the popular Arduino open-source microcontroller and a low-power timer board to cycle a GPS at defined intervals. Location data were saved to a data card in an open format for easy analysis. Total cost per COTS GPS device (including housing and collar) was $54.78. Average displacement from a known location and 95% circular error probability was 4.58 m, commensurate with other GPS collars. We tested durability and field performance of 25 COTS GPS collars against 24 existing GPS collars recording data at 5-min intervals in a southwest Idaho, United States study area. Our COTS GPS design and test showed that it is possible to manufacture low-cost location tracking devices, but the limitations of such devices must be considered relative to study objectives and duration. Low-cost location trackers will encourage collection of a higher density of location information to better understand patterns of livestock use in rangeland landscapes.

KW - animal tracking

KW - Arduino

KW - Global Positioning System

KW - GPS location

KW - livestock distribution

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85073559837&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85073559837&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.rama.2019.08.003

DO - 10.1016/j.rama.2019.08.003

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85073559837

VL - 72

SP - 954

EP - 958

JO - Rangeland Ecology and Management

JF - Rangeland Ecology and Management

SN - 1550-7424

IS - 6

ER -