Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

The authors report on hybrid electro-optic (EO) polymer-sol-gel modulators with low half-wave voltage (Vπ) and low insertion loss. Larger EO coefficient r33 results from the high poling field achieved when EO polymer is sandwiched between sol-gel cladding layers. The reduced interelectrode distance (d) resulting from the elimination of the sol-gel core layer in the active region further reduces Vπ. Straight channel phase modulators operate with Vπ =4.2 V at 1550 nm using a reduced d of 11.5 μm, which corresponds to an r33 of 78 pmV, among the highest r33 reported. The authors also examine a Mach-Zehnder modulator with Vπ =3.9 V using a conventional d of 15 μm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number143506
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume89
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 12 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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