MagAO IMAGING of LONG-PERIOD OBJECTS (MILO). I. A BENCHMARK M DWARF COMPANION EXCITING A MASSIVE PLANET AROUND the SUN-LIKE STAR HD 7449

Timothy J. Rodigas, Pamela Arriagada, Jackie Faherty, Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Nathan Kaib, R. Paul Butler, Stephen Shectman, Alycia Weinberger, Jared R. Males, Katie M. Morzinski, Laird M Close, Philip M Hinz, Jeffrey D. Crane, Ian Thompson, Johanna Teske, Matias Diaz, Dante Minniti, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, Fred C. Adams, Alan P. Boss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present high-contrast Magellan adaptive optics images of HD 7449, a Sun-like star with one planet and a long-term radial velocity (RV) trend. We unambiguously detect the source of the long-term trend from 0.6-2.15 μm at a separation of ∼0.″54. We use the object's colors and spectral energy distribution to show that it is most likely an M4-M5 dwarf (mass ∼0.1-0.2 ) at the same distance as the primary and is therefore likely bound. We also present new RVs measured with the Magellan/MIKE and Planet Finder Spectrograph spectrometers and compile these with archival data from CORALIE and HARPS. We use a new Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to constrain both the mass (at 99% confidence) and semimajor axis (∼18 AU) of the M dwarf companion (HD 7449B). We also refine the parameters of the known massive planet (HD 7449Ab), finding that its minimum mass is MJ, its semimajor axis is AU, and its eccentricity is . We use N-body simulations to constrain the eccentricity of HD 7449B to ≲0.5. The M dwarf may be inducing Kozai oscillations on the planet, explaining its high eccentricity. If this is the case and its orbit was initially circular, the mass of the planet would need to be ≲1.5 MJ. This demonstrates that strong constraints on known planets can be made using direct observations of otherwise undetectable long-period companions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume818
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 20 2016

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planets
planet
eccentricity
trends
Markov chains
Markov chain
spectral energy distribution
adaptive optics
radial velocity
spectrographs
confidence
sun
spectrometer
oscillation
spectrometers
orbits
color
stars
oscillations
simulation

Keywords

  • binaries: general
  • instrumentation: adaptive optics
  • planetary systems
  • stars: individual (HD 7449)
  • techniques: high angular resolution
  • techniques: radial velocities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

MagAO IMAGING of LONG-PERIOD OBJECTS (MILO). I. A BENCHMARK M DWARF COMPANION EXCITING A MASSIVE PLANET AROUND the SUN-LIKE STAR HD 7449. / Rodigas, Timothy J.; Arriagada, Pamela; Faherty, Jackie; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Kaib, Nathan; Butler, R. Paul; Shectman, Stephen; Weinberger, Alycia; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Philip M; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian; Teske, Johanna; Diaz, Matias; Minniti, Dante; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Boss, Alan P.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 818, No. 2, 106, 20.02.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rodigas, TJ, Arriagada, P, Faherty, J, Anglada-Escudé, G, Kaib, N, Butler, RP, Shectman, S, Weinberger, A, Males, JR, Morzinski, KM, Close, LM, Hinz, PM, Crane, JD, Thompson, I, Teske, J, Diaz, M, Minniti, D, Lopez-Morales, M, Adams, FC & Boss, AP 2016, 'MagAO IMAGING of LONG-PERIOD OBJECTS (MILO). I. A BENCHMARK M DWARF COMPANION EXCITING A MASSIVE PLANET AROUND the SUN-LIKE STAR HD 7449', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 818, no. 2, 106. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/818/2/106
Rodigas, Timothy J. ; Arriagada, Pamela ; Faherty, Jackie ; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem ; Kaib, Nathan ; Butler, R. Paul ; Shectman, Stephen ; Weinberger, Alycia ; Males, Jared R. ; Morzinski, Katie M. ; Close, Laird M ; Hinz, Philip M ; Crane, Jeffrey D. ; Thompson, Ian ; Teske, Johanna ; Diaz, Matias ; Minniti, Dante ; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes ; Adams, Fred C. ; Boss, Alan P. / MagAO IMAGING of LONG-PERIOD OBJECTS (MILO). I. A BENCHMARK M DWARF COMPANION EXCITING A MASSIVE PLANET AROUND the SUN-LIKE STAR HD 7449. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2016 ; Vol. 818, No. 2.
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abstract = "We present high-contrast Magellan adaptive optics images of HD 7449, a Sun-like star with one planet and a long-term radial velocity (RV) trend. We unambiguously detect the source of the long-term trend from 0.6-2.15 μm at a separation of ∼0.″54. We use the object's colors and spectral energy distribution to show that it is most likely an M4-M5 dwarf (mass ∼0.1-0.2 ) at the same distance as the primary and is therefore likely bound. We also present new RVs measured with the Magellan/MIKE and Planet Finder Spectrograph spectrometers and compile these with archival data from CORALIE and HARPS. We use a new Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to constrain both the mass (at 99{\%} confidence) and semimajor axis (∼18 AU) of the M dwarf companion (HD 7449B). We also refine the parameters of the known massive planet (HD 7449Ab), finding that its minimum mass is MJ, its semimajor axis is AU, and its eccentricity is . We use N-body simulations to constrain the eccentricity of HD 7449B to ≲0.5. The M dwarf may be inducing Kozai oscillations on the planet, explaining its high eccentricity. If this is the case and its orbit was initially circular, the mass of the planet would need to be ≲1.5 MJ. This demonstrates that strong constraints on known planets can be made using direct observations of otherwise undetectable long-period companions.",
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AU - Rodigas, Timothy J.

AU - Arriagada, Pamela

AU - Faherty, Jackie

AU - Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

AU - Kaib, Nathan

AU - Butler, R. Paul

AU - Shectman, Stephen

AU - Weinberger, Alycia

AU - Males, Jared R.

AU - Morzinski, Katie M.

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N2 - We present high-contrast Magellan adaptive optics images of HD 7449, a Sun-like star with one planet and a long-term radial velocity (RV) trend. We unambiguously detect the source of the long-term trend from 0.6-2.15 μm at a separation of ∼0.″54. We use the object's colors and spectral energy distribution to show that it is most likely an M4-M5 dwarf (mass ∼0.1-0.2 ) at the same distance as the primary and is therefore likely bound. We also present new RVs measured with the Magellan/MIKE and Planet Finder Spectrograph spectrometers and compile these with archival data from CORALIE and HARPS. We use a new Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure to constrain both the mass (at 99% confidence) and semimajor axis (∼18 AU) of the M dwarf companion (HD 7449B). We also refine the parameters of the known massive planet (HD 7449Ab), finding that its minimum mass is MJ, its semimajor axis is AU, and its eccentricity is . We use N-body simulations to constrain the eccentricity of HD 7449B to ≲0.5. The M dwarf may be inducing Kozai oscillations on the planet, explaining its high eccentricity. If this is the case and its orbit was initially circular, the mass of the planet would need to be ≲1.5 MJ. This demonstrates that strong constraints on known planets can be made using direct observations of otherwise undetectable long-period companions.

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