Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β pic b. I. direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-ir with nici

Jared R. Males, Laird M Close, Katie M. Morzinski, Zahed Wahhaj, Michael C. Liu, Andrew J. Skemer, Derek Kopon, Katherine B. Follette, Alfio Puglisi, Simone Esposito, Armando Riccardi, Enrico Pinna, Marco Xompero, Runa Briguglio, Beth A. Biller, Eric L. Nielsen, Philip M Hinz, Timothy J. Rodigas, Thomas L. Hayward, Mark ChunChrist Ftaclas, Douglas W. Toomey, Ya Lin Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.″010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L odot;bol/L odot;) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M odot;Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L odot;bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number32
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume786
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2014

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extrasolar planets
adaptive optics
planet
deuterium
estimates
signal-to-noise ratio
near infrared
temperature
photometry
gravity
radii
false alarms
microgravity
coolers
planets
charge coupled devices
signal to noise ratios
cameras
telescopes
methylidyne

Keywords

  • brown dwarfs
  • instrumentation: adaptive optics
  • planetary systems
  • planets and satellites: detection
  • planets and satellites: individual (beta Pictoris b)
  • stars: individual (beta Pictoris)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β pic b. I. direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-ir with nici. / Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M; Morzinski, Katie M.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Kopon, Derek; Follette, Katherine B.; Puglisi, Alfio; Esposito, Simone; Riccardi, Armando; Pinna, Enrico; Xompero, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hinz, Philip M; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.; Wu, Ya Lin.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 786, No. 1, 32, 01.05.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Males, JR, Close, LM, Morzinski, KM, Wahhaj, Z, Liu, MC, Skemer, AJ, Kopon, D, Follette, KB, Puglisi, A, Esposito, S, Riccardi, A, Pinna, E, Xompero, M, Briguglio, R, Biller, BA, Nielsen, EL, Hinz, PM, Rodigas, TJ, Hayward, TL, Chun, M, Ftaclas, C, Toomey, DW & Wu, YL 2014, 'Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β pic b. I. direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-ir with nici', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 786, no. 1, 32. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/32
Males, Jared R. ; Close, Laird M ; Morzinski, Katie M. ; Wahhaj, Zahed ; Liu, Michael C. ; Skemer, Andrew J. ; Kopon, Derek ; Follette, Katherine B. ; Puglisi, Alfio ; Esposito, Simone ; Riccardi, Armando ; Pinna, Enrico ; Xompero, Marco ; Briguglio, Runa ; Biller, Beth A. ; Nielsen, Eric L. ; Hinz, Philip M ; Rodigas, Timothy J. ; Hayward, Thomas L. ; Chun, Mark ; Ftaclas, Christ ; Toomey, Douglas W. ; Wu, Ya Lin. / Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β pic b. I. direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-ir with nici. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 786, No. 1.
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abstract = "We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.″010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0{\%}. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1{\%} (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L odot;bol/L odot;) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M odot;Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L odot;bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.",
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T1 - Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β pic b. I. direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-ir with nici

AU - Males, Jared R.

AU - Close, Laird M

AU - Morzinski, Katie M.

AU - Wahhaj, Zahed

AU - Liu, Michael C.

AU - Skemer, Andrew J.

AU - Kopon, Derek

AU - Follette, Katherine B.

AU - Puglisi, Alfio

AU - Esposito, Simone

AU - Riccardi, Armando

AU - Pinna, Enrico

AU - Xompero, Marco

AU - Briguglio, Runa

AU - Biller, Beth A.

AU - Nielsen, Eric L.

AU - Hinz, Philip M

AU - Rodigas, Timothy J.

AU - Hayward, Thomas L.

AU - Chun, Mark

AU - Ftaclas, Christ

AU - Toomey, Douglas W.

AU - Wu, Ya Lin

PY - 2014/5/1

Y1 - 2014/5/1

N2 - We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.″010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L odot;bol/L odot;) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M odot;Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L odot;bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

AB - We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (YS , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.″010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10-5. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH 4S,1% (1.58 μm), KS (2.18 μm), and K cont (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L odot;bol/L odot;) = -3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M odot;Jup for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L odot;bol-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T eff = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R Jup, this T eff is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.

KW - brown dwarfs

KW - instrumentation: adaptive optics

KW - planetary systems

KW - planets and satellites: detection

KW - planets and satellites: individual (beta Pictoris b)

KW - stars: individual (beta Pictoris)

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