Massive galaxies in cosmos

Evolution of black hole versus bulge mass but not versus total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyr?

Knud Jahnke, Angela Bongiorno, Marcella Brusa, Peter Capak, Nico Cappelluti, Mauricio Cisternas, Francesca Civano, James Colbert, Andrea Comastri, Martin Elvis, Günther Hasinger, Olivier Ilbert, Christopher D Impey, Katherine Inskip, Anton M. Koekemoer, Simon Lilly, Christian Maier, Andrea Merloni, Dominik Riechers, Mara Salvato & 6 others Eva Schinnerer, Nick Z. Scoville, John Silverman, Yoshi Taniguchi, Jonathan R. Trump, Lin Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We constrain the ratio of black hole (BH) mass to total stellar mass of type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS survey at 1 < z < 2. For 10 AGNs at mean redshift z ∼ 1.4 with both Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS and HST/NICMOS imaging data, we are able to compute the total stellar mass M *,total, based on rest-frame UV-to-optical host galaxy colors which constrain mass-to-light ratios. All objects have virial M BH estimates available from the COSMOS Magellan/IMACS and zCOSMOS surveys. We find within errors zero difference between the M BH-M *,total relation at z ∼ 1.4 and the M BH-M *,bulge relation in the local universe. Our interpretation is (1) if our objects were purely bulge-dominated, the M BH-M *,bulge relation has not evolved since z ∼ 1.4. However, (2) since we have evidence for substantial disk components, the bulges of massive galaxies (M *,total = 11.1 ± 0.3 or log M BH ∼ 8.3 ± 0.2) must have grown over the last 9 Gyr predominantly by redistribution of the disk into the bulge mass. Since all necessary stellar mass exists in galaxies at z = 1.4, no star formation or addition of external stellar material is required, but only a redistribution, e.g., induced by minor and major merging or through disk instabilities. Merging, in addition to redistributing mass in the galaxy, will add both BH and stellar/bulge mass, but does not change the overall final M BH/M *,bulge ratio. Since the overall cosmic stellar and BH mass buildup trace each other tightly over time, our scenario of bulge formation in massive galaxies is independent of any strong BH feedback and means that the mechanism coupling BH and bulge mass until the present is very indirect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume706
Issue number2 PART 2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Fingerprint

cosmos
stellar mass
galaxies
Hubble Space Telescope
active galactic nuclei
mass to light ratios
star formation
universe

Keywords

  • Galaxies: active
  • Galaxies: evolution
  • Galaxies: fundamental parameters
  • Galaxies: nuclei

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics

Cite this

Massive galaxies in cosmos : Evolution of black hole versus bulge mass but not versus total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyr? / Jahnke, Knud; Bongiorno, Angela; Brusa, Marcella; Capak, Peter; Cappelluti, Nico; Cisternas, Mauricio; Civano, Francesca; Colbert, James; Comastri, Andrea; Elvis, Martin; Hasinger, Günther; Ilbert, Olivier; Impey, Christopher D; Inskip, Katherine; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lilly, Simon; Maier, Christian; Merloni, Andrea; Riechers, Dominik; Salvato, Mara; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick Z.; Silverman, John; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Trump, Jonathan R.; Yan, Lin.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 706, No. 2 PART 2, 2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jahnke, K, Bongiorno, A, Brusa, M, Capak, P, Cappelluti, N, Cisternas, M, Civano, F, Colbert, J, Comastri, A, Elvis, M, Hasinger, G, Ilbert, O, Impey, CD, Inskip, K, Koekemoer, AM, Lilly, S, Maier, C, Merloni, A, Riechers, D, Salvato, M, Schinnerer, E, Scoville, NZ, Silverman, J, Taniguchi, Y, Trump, JR & Yan, L 2009, 'Massive galaxies in cosmos: Evolution of black hole versus bulge mass but not versus total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyr?', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 706, no. 2 PART 2. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/706/2/L215
Jahnke, Knud ; Bongiorno, Angela ; Brusa, Marcella ; Capak, Peter ; Cappelluti, Nico ; Cisternas, Mauricio ; Civano, Francesca ; Colbert, James ; Comastri, Andrea ; Elvis, Martin ; Hasinger, Günther ; Ilbert, Olivier ; Impey, Christopher D ; Inskip, Katherine ; Koekemoer, Anton M. ; Lilly, Simon ; Maier, Christian ; Merloni, Andrea ; Riechers, Dominik ; Salvato, Mara ; Schinnerer, Eva ; Scoville, Nick Z. ; Silverman, John ; Taniguchi, Yoshi ; Trump, Jonathan R. ; Yan, Lin. / Massive galaxies in cosmos : Evolution of black hole versus bulge mass but not versus total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyr?. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 706, No. 2 PART 2.
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abstract = "We constrain the ratio of black hole (BH) mass to total stellar mass of type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS survey at 1 < z < 2. For 10 AGNs at mean redshift z ∼ 1.4 with both Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS and HST/NICMOS imaging data, we are able to compute the total stellar mass M *,total, based on rest-frame UV-to-optical host galaxy colors which constrain mass-to-light ratios. All objects have virial M BH estimates available from the COSMOS Magellan/IMACS and zCOSMOS surveys. We find within errors zero difference between the M BH-M *,total relation at z ∼ 1.4 and the M BH-M *,bulge relation in the local universe. Our interpretation is (1) if our objects were purely bulge-dominated, the M BH-M *,bulge relation has not evolved since z ∼ 1.4. However, (2) since we have evidence for substantial disk components, the bulges of massive galaxies (M *,total = 11.1 ± 0.3 or log M BH ∼ 8.3 ± 0.2) must have grown over the last 9 Gyr predominantly by redistribution of the disk into the bulge mass. Since all necessary stellar mass exists in galaxies at z = 1.4, no star formation or addition of external stellar material is required, but only a redistribution, e.g., induced by minor and major merging or through disk instabilities. Merging, in addition to redistributing mass in the galaxy, will add both BH and stellar/bulge mass, but does not change the overall final M BH/M *,bulge ratio. Since the overall cosmic stellar and BH mass buildup trace each other tightly over time, our scenario of bulge formation in massive galaxies is independent of any strong BH feedback and means that the mechanism coupling BH and bulge mass until the present is very indirect.",
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T2 - Evolution of black hole versus bulge mass but not versus total stellar mass over the last 9 Gyr?

AU - Jahnke, Knud

AU - Bongiorno, Angela

AU - Brusa, Marcella

AU - Capak, Peter

AU - Cappelluti, Nico

AU - Cisternas, Mauricio

AU - Civano, Francesca

AU - Colbert, James

AU - Comastri, Andrea

AU - Elvis, Martin

AU - Hasinger, Günther

AU - Ilbert, Olivier

AU - Impey, Christopher D

AU - Inskip, Katherine

AU - Koekemoer, Anton M.

AU - Lilly, Simon

AU - Maier, Christian

AU - Merloni, Andrea

AU - Riechers, Dominik

AU - Salvato, Mara

AU - Schinnerer, Eva

AU - Scoville, Nick Z.

AU - Silverman, John

AU - Taniguchi, Yoshi

AU - Trump, Jonathan R.

AU - Yan, Lin

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