### Abstract

We test the reliability of a method to measure the mean halo mass of absorption-line systems such as damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). The method is based on measuring the ratio of the cross-correlation between DLAs and galaxies to the autocorrelation of the galaxies themselves, which is (in linear theory) the ratio of their bias factor b. We show that the ratio of the projected cross- and autocorrelation functions [W_{dg}(r _{θ})/w_{gg}(r_{theta;})] is also the ratio of their bias factor, irrespective of the galaxy distribution, provided that one uses the same galaxies for w_{dg}(r_{θ}) and w _{gg}(r_{θ}). Thus, the method requires only multiband imaging of DLA fields and is applicable to all redshifts. Here, we focus on z = 3 DLAs. We demonstrate that the method robustly constrains the mean DLA halo mass using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological simulations that resolve DLAs and galaxies in halos of mass M_{h} ≳ 5.2 × 10^{10} M_{⊙}. If we use the bias formalism of Mo & White with the DLA and galaxy mass distributions of these simulations, we predict an amplitude ratio W_{dg}/w_{gg} of 0.771. Direct measurement of these correlation functions from the simulations yields W _{dg}/w_{gg} = b_{DLA}/b_{gal} = 0.73 ±0.08, in excellent agreement with that prediction. Equivalently, inverting the measured correlation ratio to infer the (logarithmically) averaged DLA halo mass yields (log M_{DLA}〈M _{⊙})〉 = 11.13_{-0.13}^{+0.13}, in excellent agreement with the true value in the simulations: log M_{DLA} (M _{⊙}) = 11.16 is the probability-weighted mean mass of the DLA host halos in the simulations. The cross-correlation method thus appears to yield a robust estimate of the average host halo mass, even though the DLAs and the galaxies occupy a broad mass spectrum of halos and massive halos contain multiple galaxies with DLAs. If we consider subsets of the simulated galaxies with high star formation rates (representing Lyman break galaxies [LBGs]), then both correlations are higher, but their ratio still implies the same DLA host mass, irrespective of the galaxy subsamples, i.e., the cross-correlation technique is also reliable. The inferred mean DLA halo mass, 〈logM _{DLA}〉 = 11.13-_{0.13}^{+0.13} is an upper limit, since the simulations do not resolve halos less massive than ∼10 ^{10.5} M_{⊙} Thus, our results imply that the correlation length between DLAs and LBGs is predicted to be at most ∼ 2.85 h ^{-1} Mpc, given that z = 3 LBGs have a correlation length of r _{0} ≃ 4 h^{-1} Mpc. While the small size of current observational samples does not allow strong conclusions, future measurements of this cross-correlation can definitively distinguish models in which many DLAs reside in low-mass halos from those in which DLAs are massive disks occupying only high-mass halos.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 89-103 |

Number of pages | 15 |

Journal | Astrophysical Journal |

Volume | 628 |

Issue number | 1 I |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Jul 20 2005 |

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### Keywords

- Cosmology: theory
- Galaxies: evolution
- Galaxies: high-redshift
- Quasars: absorption lines

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Space and Planetary Science

### Cite this

*Astrophysical Journal*,

*628*(1 I), 89-103. https://doi.org/10.1086/430587

**Measuring the halo mass of z ∼ 3 damped Lyα absorbers from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation.** / Bouché, Nicolas; Gardner, Jeffrey P.; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.; Dave, Romeel S; Lowenthal, James D.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Astrophysical Journal*, vol. 628, no. 1 I, pp. 89-103. https://doi.org/10.1086/430587

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measuring the halo mass of z ∼ 3 damped Lyα absorbers from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation

AU - Bouché, Nicolas

AU - Gardner, Jeffrey P.

AU - Katz, Neal

AU - Weinberg, David H.

AU - Dave, Romeel S

AU - Lowenthal, James D.

PY - 2005/7/20

Y1 - 2005/7/20

N2 - We test the reliability of a method to measure the mean halo mass of absorption-line systems such as damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). The method is based on measuring the ratio of the cross-correlation between DLAs and galaxies to the autocorrelation of the galaxies themselves, which is (in linear theory) the ratio of their bias factor b. We show that the ratio of the projected cross- and autocorrelation functions [Wdg(r θ)/wgg(rtheta;)] is also the ratio of their bias factor, irrespective of the galaxy distribution, provided that one uses the same galaxies for wdg(rθ) and w gg(rθ). Thus, the method requires only multiband imaging of DLA fields and is applicable to all redshifts. Here, we focus on z = 3 DLAs. We demonstrate that the method robustly constrains the mean DLA halo mass using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological simulations that resolve DLAs and galaxies in halos of mass Mh ≳ 5.2 × 1010 M⊙. If we use the bias formalism of Mo & White with the DLA and galaxy mass distributions of these simulations, we predict an amplitude ratio Wdg/wgg of 0.771. Direct measurement of these correlation functions from the simulations yields W dg/wgg = bDLA/bgal = 0.73 ±0.08, in excellent agreement with that prediction. Equivalently, inverting the measured correlation ratio to infer the (logarithmically) averaged DLA halo mass yields (log MDLA〈M ⊙)〉 = 11.13-0.13+0.13, in excellent agreement with the true value in the simulations: log MDLA (M ⊙) = 11.16 is the probability-weighted mean mass of the DLA host halos in the simulations. The cross-correlation method thus appears to yield a robust estimate of the average host halo mass, even though the DLAs and the galaxies occupy a broad mass spectrum of halos and massive halos contain multiple galaxies with DLAs. If we consider subsets of the simulated galaxies with high star formation rates (representing Lyman break galaxies [LBGs]), then both correlations are higher, but their ratio still implies the same DLA host mass, irrespective of the galaxy subsamples, i.e., the cross-correlation technique is also reliable. The inferred mean DLA halo mass, 〈logM DLA〉 = 11.13-0.13+0.13 is an upper limit, since the simulations do not resolve halos less massive than ∼10 10.5 M⊙ Thus, our results imply that the correlation length between DLAs and LBGs is predicted to be at most ∼ 2.85 h -1 Mpc, given that z = 3 LBGs have a correlation length of r 0 ≃ 4 h-1 Mpc. While the small size of current observational samples does not allow strong conclusions, future measurements of this cross-correlation can definitively distinguish models in which many DLAs reside in low-mass halos from those in which DLAs are massive disks occupying only high-mass halos.

AB - We test the reliability of a method to measure the mean halo mass of absorption-line systems such as damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs). The method is based on measuring the ratio of the cross-correlation between DLAs and galaxies to the autocorrelation of the galaxies themselves, which is (in linear theory) the ratio of their bias factor b. We show that the ratio of the projected cross- and autocorrelation functions [Wdg(r θ)/wgg(rtheta;)] is also the ratio of their bias factor, irrespective of the galaxy distribution, provided that one uses the same galaxies for wdg(rθ) and w gg(rθ). Thus, the method requires only multiband imaging of DLA fields and is applicable to all redshifts. Here, we focus on z = 3 DLAs. We demonstrate that the method robustly constrains the mean DLA halo mass using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) cosmological simulations that resolve DLAs and galaxies in halos of mass Mh ≳ 5.2 × 1010 M⊙. If we use the bias formalism of Mo & White with the DLA and galaxy mass distributions of these simulations, we predict an amplitude ratio Wdg/wgg of 0.771. Direct measurement of these correlation functions from the simulations yields W dg/wgg = bDLA/bgal = 0.73 ±0.08, in excellent agreement with that prediction. Equivalently, inverting the measured correlation ratio to infer the (logarithmically) averaged DLA halo mass yields (log MDLA〈M ⊙)〉 = 11.13-0.13+0.13, in excellent agreement with the true value in the simulations: log MDLA (M ⊙) = 11.16 is the probability-weighted mean mass of the DLA host halos in the simulations. The cross-correlation method thus appears to yield a robust estimate of the average host halo mass, even though the DLAs and the galaxies occupy a broad mass spectrum of halos and massive halos contain multiple galaxies with DLAs. If we consider subsets of the simulated galaxies with high star formation rates (representing Lyman break galaxies [LBGs]), then both correlations are higher, but their ratio still implies the same DLA host mass, irrespective of the galaxy subsamples, i.e., the cross-correlation technique is also reliable. The inferred mean DLA halo mass, 〈logM DLA〉 = 11.13-0.13+0.13 is an upper limit, since the simulations do not resolve halos less massive than ∼10 10.5 M⊙ Thus, our results imply that the correlation length between DLAs and LBGs is predicted to be at most ∼ 2.85 h -1 Mpc, given that z = 3 LBGs have a correlation length of r 0 ≃ 4 h-1 Mpc. While the small size of current observational samples does not allow strong conclusions, future measurements of this cross-correlation can definitively distinguish models in which many DLAs reside in low-mass halos from those in which DLAs are massive disks occupying only high-mass halos.

KW - Cosmology: theory

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: high-redshift

KW - Quasars: absorption lines

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U2 - 10.1086/430587

DO - 10.1086/430587

M3 - Article

VL - 628

SP - 89

EP - 103

JO - Astrophysical Journal

JF - Astrophysical Journal

SN - 0004-637X

IS - 1 I

ER -