Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus

Damian H. Gilling, Masaaki Kitajima, Jason R. Torrey, Kelly R Bright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4898-4910
Number of pages13
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume80
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

citral
Pimenta
Norovirus
Antiviral Agents
Oils
allspice
anti-infective agents
Capsid
Cymbopogon
oils
oil
mice
Pancreatic Ribonuclease
capsid
antiviral properties
Viruses
infectivity
Viral RNA
assay
Transmission Electron Microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Ecology

Cite this

Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus. / Gilling, Damian H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R.; Bright, Kelly R.

In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 80, No. 16, 2014, p. 4898-4910.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gilling, Damian H. ; Kitajima, Masaaki ; Torrey, Jason R. ; Bright, Kelly R. / Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus. In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2014 ; Vol. 80, No. 16. pp. 4898-4910.
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