Mechanisms of opioid-induced pain and antinociceptive tolerance: Descending facilitation and spinal dynorphin

Todd W. Vanderah, Michael H. Ossipov, Josephine Lai, T. Philip Malan, Frank Porreca

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

208 Scopus citations
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-9
Number of pages5
JournalPain
Volume92
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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