Megasonic cleaning of wafers in electrolyte solutions: Possible role of electro-acoustic and cavitation effects

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Abstract

Investigations have been conducted on the feasibility of removal of particles from silicon wafers in electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths irradiated with megasonic waves. Cleaning experiments have been performed using potassium chloride (KCl) as a model electrolyte and silica particles as model contaminant particles. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) increases with KCl concentration and transducer power density and much lower power densities may be used at higher KCl concentration for a comparable level of cleaning. Enhanced cleaning in KCl solutions has been explained as due to two types of electro-acoustic potentials, namely, ionic vibration potential (IVP) and colloidal vibration potential (CVP) that arise when the sound wave propagates through the electrolyte solution. Theoretical computations have shown that the removal forces due to CVP are much larger in magnitude than those due to IVP and are comparable to van der Waals adhesion forces. The effect of ionic strength on cavitation has been investigated through the measurement of acoustic pressure in solutions using a hydrophone. Using Fourier transformation of time dependent pressure data, the size distribution of stable bubbles in KCl solutions of different concentration has been obtained.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)132-139
Number of pages8
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Volume86
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2009

Fingerprint

cavitation flow
Cavitation
cleaning
Electrolytes
Cleaning
Acoustics
electrolytes
wafers
acoustics
vibration
Ionic strength
Vibrations (mechanical)
radiant flux density
Hydrophones
potassium chlorides
Potassium Chloride
hydrophones
Fourier transformation
Bubbles (in fluids)
Silicon wafers

Keywords

  • Cavitation
  • Cleaning
  • Electro-acoustic
  • Electrolyte
  • Megasonic
  • Pressure amplitude
  • Wafer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

Cite this

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title = "Megasonic cleaning of wafers in electrolyte solutions: Possible role of electro-acoustic and cavitation effects",
abstract = "Investigations have been conducted on the feasibility of removal of particles from silicon wafers in electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths irradiated with megasonic waves. Cleaning experiments have been performed using potassium chloride (KCl) as a model electrolyte and silica particles as model contaminant particles. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) increases with KCl concentration and transducer power density and much lower power densities may be used at higher KCl concentration for a comparable level of cleaning. Enhanced cleaning in KCl solutions has been explained as due to two types of electro-acoustic potentials, namely, ionic vibration potential (IVP) and colloidal vibration potential (CVP) that arise when the sound wave propagates through the electrolyte solution. Theoretical computations have shown that the removal forces due to CVP are much larger in magnitude than those due to IVP and are comparable to van der Waals adhesion forces. The effect of ionic strength on cavitation has been investigated through the measurement of acoustic pressure in solutions using a hydrophone. Using Fourier transformation of time dependent pressure data, the size distribution of stable bubbles in KCl solutions of different concentration has been obtained.",
keywords = "Cavitation, Cleaning, Electro-acoustic, Electrolyte, Megasonic, Pressure amplitude, Wafer",
author = "Keswani, {Manish K} and Srini Raghavan and Deymier, {Pierre A} and S. Verhaverbeke",
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AU - Deymier, Pierre A

AU - Verhaverbeke, S.

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N2 - Investigations have been conducted on the feasibility of removal of particles from silicon wafers in electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths irradiated with megasonic waves. Cleaning experiments have been performed using potassium chloride (KCl) as a model electrolyte and silica particles as model contaminant particles. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) increases with KCl concentration and transducer power density and much lower power densities may be used at higher KCl concentration for a comparable level of cleaning. Enhanced cleaning in KCl solutions has been explained as due to two types of electro-acoustic potentials, namely, ionic vibration potential (IVP) and colloidal vibration potential (CVP) that arise when the sound wave propagates through the electrolyte solution. Theoretical computations have shown that the removal forces due to CVP are much larger in magnitude than those due to IVP and are comparable to van der Waals adhesion forces. The effect of ionic strength on cavitation has been investigated through the measurement of acoustic pressure in solutions using a hydrophone. Using Fourier transformation of time dependent pressure data, the size distribution of stable bubbles in KCl solutions of different concentration has been obtained.

AB - Investigations have been conducted on the feasibility of removal of particles from silicon wafers in electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths irradiated with megasonic waves. Cleaning experiments have been performed using potassium chloride (KCl) as a model electrolyte and silica particles as model contaminant particles. Particle removal efficiency (PRE) increases with KCl concentration and transducer power density and much lower power densities may be used at higher KCl concentration for a comparable level of cleaning. Enhanced cleaning in KCl solutions has been explained as due to two types of electro-acoustic potentials, namely, ionic vibration potential (IVP) and colloidal vibration potential (CVP) that arise when the sound wave propagates through the electrolyte solution. Theoretical computations have shown that the removal forces due to CVP are much larger in magnitude than those due to IVP and are comparable to van der Waals adhesion forces. The effect of ionic strength on cavitation has been investigated through the measurement of acoustic pressure in solutions using a hydrophone. Using Fourier transformation of time dependent pressure data, the size distribution of stable bubbles in KCl solutions of different concentration has been obtained.

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