Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and enhance reconditioning of donor lungs after circulatory death

Matthew L. Stone, Yunge Zhao, J. Robert Smith, Mark L. Weiss, Irving L. Kron, Victor E. Laubach, Ashish K. Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury after transplantation as well as acute shortage of suitable donor lungs are two critical issues impacting lung transplant patients. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to attenuate lung IR injury and improve of ex-vivo lung perfusion (EVLP)-mediated rehabilitation in donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs. Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice underwent sham surgery or lung IR using an in vivo hilar-ligation model with or without MSCs or EVs. In vitro studies used primary iNKT cells and macrophages (MH-S cells) were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation with/without co-cultures with MSCs or EVs. Also, separate groups of WT mice underwent euthanasia and 1 h of warm ischemia and stored at 4 °C for 1 h followed by 1 h of normothermic EVLP using Steen solution or Steen solution containing MSCs or EVs. Results: Lungs from MSCs or EV-treated mice had significant attenuation of lung dysfunction and injury (decreased edema, neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase levels) compared to IR alone. A significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α, CXCL1 and HMGB1) and upregulation of keratinocyte growth factor, prostaglandin E2 and IL-10 occurred in the BAL fluid from MSC or EV-treated mice after IR compared to IR alone. Furthermore, MSCs or EVs significantly downregulated iNKT cell-produced IL-17 and macrophage-produced HMGB1 and TNF-α after hypoxia/reoxygenation. Finally, EVLP of DCD lungs with Steen solution including MSCs or EVs provided significantly enhanced protection versus Steen solution alone. Co-cultures of MSCs or EVs with lung endothelial cells prevents neutrophil transendothelial migration after exposure to hypoxia/reoxygenation and TNF-α/HMGB1 cytomix. Conclusions: These results suggest that MSC-derived EVs can attenuate lung inflammation and injury after IR as well as enhance EVLP-mediated reconditioning of donor lungs. The therapeutic benefits of EVs are in part mediated through anti-inflammatory promoting mechanisms via attenuation of immune cell activation as well as prevention of endothelial barrier integrity to prevent lung edema. Therefore, MSC-derived EVs offer a potential therapeutic strategy to treat post-transplant IR injury as well as rehabilitation of DCD lungs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number212
JournalRespiratory Research
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 21 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Donation after circulatory death
  • Ex vivo lung perfusion
  • Ischemia-reperfusion injury
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells
  • Microvesicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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