Methods of generating submicrometer phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets for applications in medical ultrasonography

Paul S. Sheeran, Naomi Matsuura, Mark A. Borden, Ross Williams, Terry O Matsunaga, Peter N. Burns, Paul A. Dayton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Continued advances in the field of ultrasound and ultrasound contrast agents have created new approaches to imaging and medical intervention. Phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, which can be vaporized by ultrasound energy to transition from the liquid to the vapor state, are one of the most highly researched alternatives to clinical ultrasound contrast agents (i.e., microbubbles). In this paper, part of a special issue on methods in biomedical ultrasonics, we survey current techniques to prepare ultrasound-activated nanoscale phase-shift perfluorocarbon droplets, including sonication, extrusion, homogenization, microfluidics, and microbubble condensation. We provide example protocols and discuss advantages and limitations of each approach. Finally, we discuss best practice in characterization of this class of contrast agents with respect to size distribution and ultrasound activation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7604095
Pages (from-to)252-263
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • High-intensity focused ultrasound
  • medical imaging
  • therapeutics
  • ultrasound contrast agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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